- Written by a respected author of acclaimed titles in this field
- Explains why early reflexes are important, their functions in development and their effects on learning, behaviour and beyond - also covers adult neurological dysfunctions anxiety and agoraphobia
- Builds on an ABC of Attention, Balance and Coordination to create a unique look across specific learning difficulties, linked by common motor skills challenges resulting from neuro-developmental deficiencies
- Includes the INPP Developmental Screening Questionnaire together with guidance on how to use and interpret it
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About the Author
Table of ContentsAbout the Authors.
1 Windows on the Brain.
Developmental Readiness for Education.
What is Neuro-Developmental Delay?
What is the Connection Between Neuro-developmental Delay and Specific Learning Difficulties?
Primitive and Postural Reflexes - the Medical Model.
Neurological Dysfunction in Specific Learning Difficulties.
Diagnostic Criteria, Signs, and Symptoms of Specific Learning Difficulties.
Dyslexia - Signs and Symptoms.
Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD).
The Sensory-Motor Connection.
Theories of Motor Control.
2 The Significance of Primitive and Postural Reflexes.
What Are Primitive and Postural Reflexes?
What can Primitive and Postural Reflexes Tell Us?
The Developing Brain.
The Emergence of Spinal Reflexes.
Reflexes Mediated at the Spinal Level.
Reflexes Mediated at the Brainstem.
Reflexes as Reflections of Hierarchical Development.
Areas of the Brain Involved in the Mediation of Primitive and Postural Reflexes.
The Multisensory Reflex - the Moro Reflex.
Characteristics of the Fear Paralysis Reflex.
Moro Reflex Activators.
Functions of the Moro Reflex.
Physiological Response to the Moro Reflex.
Implications of a Retained Moro Reflex.
Symptoms of Scotopic Sensitivity Syndrome (SSS).
General Symptoms Associated with a Retained Moro Reflex.
Behavioural Outcomes Associated with a Retained Moro Reflex.
3 Primitive Reflexes of Position.
Tonic Labyrinthine Reflex (TLR).
Development of Head Control.
Why Is Head Control So Important?
The Tonic Labyrinthine Reflex (TLR) and Early Feeding.
Asymmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex (ATNR)
Symmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex (STNR).
4 Primitive Tactile Reflexes.
Palmar Grasp Reflex.
Suckling and Sucking Reflexes.
The Spinal Galant Reflex.
5 Postural Reflexes.
Head Righting Reflexes.
6 Use of the INPP Screening Questionnaire.
The INPP Screening Questionnaire for Children.
How to Use the INPP Questionnaire.
7 Post-natal Factors Using the INPP Questionnaire.
Scoring the INPP Questionnaire.
Research into the Reliability of the INPP Questionnaire.
8 The Development of the Vestibular-Cerebellar Theory.
Development of Balance.
Cerebellum and Balance.
Significance of Vestibular Dysfunction.
Symptoms of Vestibular Problems.
9 The Effects of Neuro-developmental Delay in Adults and in Adolescents.
Problems in Higher Education.
Vestibular Connections to the Reticular Activating System (RAS).
Adolescent and Adults Manifestations of NDD - a Clinical Perspective.
10 Development of the INPP Method - from Theory to Fact.
11 Other Factors in Specific Learning Difficultes.
Unravelling the Threads.
Use of Physical Tests to Assess Neurological Readiness in Schools.
Application of the INPP Method.
Attention, Balance, and Coordination.
APPENDIX 1 Screening for Neurolological Dysfunction in the Specific Learning Difficulty Child.
Aim to the Study.
Analysis to the Questionnaire as a Means of Identifying Specific Learning Difficulties.
Analysis of Individual Questions.
APPENDIX 2 Frequency Range of Vocals and Musical Instruments.
Glossary of Terms.