In an exhilarating tale of historic adventure, the Pulitzer Prize-winning author of Confederates in the Attic retraces the voyages of Captain James Cook, the Yorkshire farm boy who drew the map of the modern world
Captain James Cook's three epic journeys in the 18th century were the last great voyages of discovery. His ships sailed 150,000 miles, from the Artic to the Antarctic, from Tasmania to Oregon, from Easter Island to Siberia. When Cook set off for the Pacific in 1768, a third of the globe remained blank. By the time he died in Hawaii in 1779, the map of the world was substantially complete.
Tony Horwitz vividly recounts Cook's voyages and the exotic scenes the captain encountered: tropical orgies, taboo rituals, cannibal feasts, human sacrifice. He also relives Cook's adventures by following in the captain's wake to places such as Tahiti, Savage Island, and the Great Barrier Reef to discover Cook's embattled legacy in the present day. Signing on as a working crewman aboard a replica of Cook's vessel, Horwitz experiences the thrill and terror of sailing a tall ship. He also explores Cook the man: an impoverished farmboy who broke through the barriers of his class and time to become the greatest navigator in British history.
By turns harrowing and hilarious, insightful and entertaining, BLUE LATITUDES brings to life a man whose voyages helped create the 'global village' we know today.
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About the Author
Tony Horwitz is the bestselling author of Confederates in the Attic, Baghdad Without a Map, and One for the Road. He is also a Pulitzer Prize–winning journalist who has worked as a foreign correspondent for The Wall Street Journal and a staff writer for The New Yorker. He lives in Virginia with his wife, Geraldine Brooks, and their son, Nathaniel.
Date of Birth:1958
Date of Death:May 27, 2019
Place of Birth:Washington, D.C.
Place of Death:Washington, D.C.
Education:B.A., Brown University; M.A., Columbia University School of Journalism
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Boldly Going Where Captain Cook Has Gone Before
By Tony Horwitz
PicadorCopyright © 2002 Tony Horwitz
All rights reserved.
One Week Before the Mast
* * *
Those who would go to sea for pleasure would go to hell for pastime.
— EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY APHORISM
When I was thirteen, my parents bought a used sailboat, a ten-foot wooden dory that I christened Wet Dream. For several summers, I tacked around the waters off Cape Cod, imagining myself one of the whalers who plied Nantucket Sound in the nineteenth century. I read Moby-Dick, tied a bandanna around my head, even tried my hand at scrimshaw. This fantasy life offered escape from the fact that I could barely sail — or caulk, or knot anything except a shoelace. One day, bailing frantically with a sawed-off milk jug after gashing the Wet Dream against a rock, I found my whaling dream had become real. I was Ishmael, the Pequod sinking beneath me.
This hapless memory returned to me as I studied an application for a berth on His Majesty's Bark Endeavour. An Australian foundation had built a museum-quality replica of Cook's first vessel and dispatched it around the globe in the navigator's path. At each port, the ship's professional crew took on volunteers to help sail the next leg and experience life as eighteenth-century sailors. This seemed the obvious place to start; if I was going to understand Cook's travels, I first had to understand how he traveled.
The application form asked about my "qualifications and experience," with boxes beside each question, marked yes or no.
Have you had any blue water ocean sailing experience?
Can you swim 50 meters fully clothed?
You will be required to work aloft, sometimes at night in heavy weather. Are you confident of being able to do this?
I wasn't sure what was meant by "blue water ocean." Did it come in other colors? I'd never swum clothed, except once, after falling off the Wet Dream. As for working aloft, I'd climbed ladders to scoop leaves from my gutter in Virginia. I checked "yes" next to each question. But the last query gave me pause: "Do you suffer from sea sickness?"
Only when I went to sea. I opted for the box marked "moderate," rather than the "chronic" box, fearing I'd otherwise be judged unfit.
A week later, I received a terse note confirming a berth in early autumn from Gig Harbor, Washington, to Vancouver, British Columbia. The letter came with a "Safety and Training Manual." A page headed "Abandon Ship" offered this helpful tip: "Stay together in waters — stay calm." Other pages dealt with "burns and scalds," "sudden serious injury," drowning, and seasickness: "You may feel like you're dying but you will survive." In case you didn't, there was a liability waiver to sign ("I understand and expressly assume these risks and dangers, including death, illness, disease ...").
The safety tips, at least, were stated in plain English. The training section read like a home appliance manual, badly translated from Korean, with "some assembly required." A typical diagram showed intersecting arrows and loops, allegedly explaining the layout of "Bits & Fife Rail to Fwd. of Mainmast Looking from Starboard Side."
I quickly gave up and spent the weeks until my voyage studying history books instead. Among other things, I learned that the original Endeavour was a mirror of the man who commanded it: plain, utilitarian, indomitable. Like Cook, the ship began its career in the coal trade, shuttling between the mine country of the north of England and the docks of east London. Bluff-bowed and wide-beamed, the ninety-seven-foot-long ship was built for bulk and endurance rather than speed or comfort. "A cross between a Dutch clog and a coffin," was how one historian described it.
The tallest of the Endeavour's three masts teetered a vertiginous 127 feet. Belowdecks, the head clearance stooped to four foot six. The Endeavour's flat bottom and very shallow keel — designed so the collier could float ashore with the tide to load and unload coal — made the ship exceptionally "tender," meaning it tended to roll from side to side. "Found the ship to be but a heavy sailer," wrote the ship's botanist, Joseph Banks, "more calculated for stowage, than for sailing." He wrote this in calm seas, two days after leaving England. When the going turned rough, Banks retreated to his cot, "ill with sickness at stomach and most violent headach."
Duly warned, I sampled a seasickness pill on the flight to Seattle. It made me so listless and wobbly that I almost fell down in the aisle. This seemed a bad state in which to work aloft, at night in heavy seas. I flushed the rest of the pills down the airplane toilet.
The pier at Gig Harbor, an hour south of Seattle, teemed with gleaming new yachts. In this sea of sleek fiberglass, the replica Endeavour was easy to spot. The original ship had been made almost entirely from grasses and trees — hemp, flax, elm, oak, pine tar — with bits of iron and brass thrown in. The replica appeared much the same. With its sails furled and its masts poking skeletally into the damp air, the vessel looked boxy and brittle, a boat built from matchsticks. At a hundred feet long, it wasn't much bigger than many of the nearby yachts.
A dozen sailors, mostly tanned young Australians in navy-colored work clothes, stood coiling ropes on the dock and bantering in the matey, mocking fashion I knew well from my years in Sydney. "Press-ganged men over there," one sailor said, pointing me to a waterside park. My fellow recruits numbered forty, mostly Americans and Canadians, including six women. Chatting nervously, I was relieved to discover that some of them had little more sailing experience than I did.
Then again, they seemed a fit lot, accustomed to hard labor, or at least hard exercise: construction workers, military veterans, sinewy joggers. "This'll be like a week at a dude ranch," a broad-shouldered carpenter assured me.
A trim, brisk figure strode over from the ship and barked, "Listen up!" This was our captain, Chris Blake, a mild-featured man much shorter than Cook but no less commanding in manner. "We'll get on with a very fast learning curve," he said, handing us over to the ship's first mate, a gruff Englishman named Geoff.
"This will be like going back into the Army, if you've ever been there, with a lot less sleep," Geoff began. "Your straight eight, you're not going to get it on this ship, so when you have a chance to put your head down, do it." He also told us where to put our heads when sea-sick. "Make friends with one of our plastic buckets and make sure you chuck it over the lee side so you're not wearing your pizza. And no throwing up belowdecks, because you'll have every other person throwing up beside you."
A safety officer followed with a brief talk about abandoning ship. "Hold your nostrils when you jump overboard because it's a long fall and can break your nose," he said. "Blokes, keep your legs crossed when you go over, same reason. Also, try to huddle together in the water. It's not going to save you, but it might give you a few more minutes." Then he warned us about the "gasp reflex." As he explained it: "The water's so cold that you gasp and suck a lot in."
After this orientation, we split into three "watches," each one assigned to a mast and a captain-of-tops, our drill sergeant for the week ahead. My watch was mainmast, by far the tallest of the three, commanded by Todd, a raffishly handsome Australian with a ponytail, earrings, and a red bandanna wrapped round his unshaven neck. "Okay, you scurvy dogs and wenches," he said, "let's start with the slops."
"Slops" was the eighteenth-century term for naval gear. Sailors on the original Endeavour wore no prescribed uniform, nor would we dress in period costume. Todd tossed us each a set of brown oilskin pants and jacket. "In Australia they're called Driza-Bone, but we call them Wet-as-a-Bastard. As soon as they get wet they stay that way." He also issued us orange night vests, and safety harnesses that looked like mountain-climbing belts.
Then Todd led us across the ship's deck and down a ladder, or companionway, which plunged to a dark chamber called the mess deck. We squinted at tables roped to the ceiling, as well as vinegar kegs, a huge iron stove, and sea chests that doubled as benches — all packed into a room the size of a suburban den. This cramped cavern would somehow accommodate thirty of us, with the other ten recruits in a small adjoining space.
Todd tossed us canvas hammocks and showed how to lash them to the beams above the tables. We were allotted just fourteen inches' width of airspace per sling, the Navy's prescribed sleeping area in the eighteenth century. "If you don't know knots, tie lots," Todd said, as I struggled to complete a simple hitch. He also showed us how to stow the hammocks, snug and tightly roped, in a netted hold.
Stumbling around the dark deck, colliding with tables and people, and bending almost double when the head clearance plunged to dwarf height, I tried to imagine spending three years in this claustrophobic hole, as Cook's men had. Incredibly, the original Endeavour left port with forty more people than we had on board — accompanied by seventeen sheep, several dozen ducks and chickens, four pigs, three cats (to catch rats), and a milk goat that had circled the globe once before. "Being in a ship is being in a jail," Samuel Johnson sagely observed, "with the chance of being drowned."
The Endeavour's mission was as daunting as the conditions on the ship. Though Ferdinand Magellan had first crossed the Pacific two and a half centuries before, the ocean — covering an area greater than all the world's landmasses combined — remained so mysterious that mapmakers labeled vast stretches of the Pacific nondum cognita (not yet known). Cartographers knew so little of the lands within the Pacific that they simply guessed at the contours of coasts: a French chart from 1753, fifteen years before the Endeavour's departure, shows dotted shorelines accompanied by the words "Je suppose."
One reason for this ignorance was that most of the ships sailing after Magellan followed the same, relatively narrow band of ocean, channeled by prevailing winds and currents, and constrained by poor navigational tools. Also, geography in the early modern era was regarded as proprietary information; navies kept explorers' charts and journals under wraps, lest competing nations use them to expand their own empires.
Not that these reports were very reliable. Magellan's pilot miscalculated the longitude of the Philippines by 53 degrees, an error akin to planting Bolivia in central Africa. When another Spanish expedition stumbled on an island chain in the western Pacific in 1567, the captain believed he'd found the biblical land of Ophir, from which King Solomon shipped gold, sandalwood, and precious stones. Spanish charts, and the navigational skills of those who followed, were so faulty that Europeans failed to find the Solomon Islands again for two centuries. No gold and not much of economic value was ever discovered there.
Pacific adventurers also showed an unfortunate tendency toward abbreviated careers. Vasco Núñez de Balboa, the first European to sight the ocean, in 1513, was beheaded for treason. Magellan set off in 1519 with five ships and 237 men; only one ship and eighteen men made it home three years later, and Magellan was not present, having been speared in the Philippines. Francis Drake, the first English circumnavigator, died at sea of dysentery. Vitus Bering, sailing for the czar, perished from exposure after shipwrecking near the frigid sea now named for him; at the last, Bering lay half-buried in sand, to keep warm, while Arctic foxes gnawed at his sick and dying men.
Other explorers simply vanished. Or went mad. In 1606, the navigator Fernandes de Queirós told his pilot, "Put the ships' heads where they like, for God will guide them as may be right." When God delivered the Spanish ships to the shore of what became the New Hebrides, Fernandes de Queirós founded a city called New Jerusalem and anointed his sailors "Knights of the Holy Ghost."
But the most persistent and alluring mirage of Pacific exploration was terra australis incognita, an unknown "south land," first conjured into being by the wonderfully named Roman mapmaker Pomponius Mela. He, like Ptolemy, believed that the continents of the northern hemisphere must be balanced by an equally large landmass at the bottom of the globe. Otherwise, the world would tilt. This appealingly symmetrical notion was embellished by Marco Polo, who claimed he'd seen a south land called Locac, filled with gold and game and elephants and idolators, "a very wild region, visited by few people." Renaissance mapmakers took the Venetian's vague coordinates and placed Locac — also known as Lucach, Maletur, and Beach — far to the south, part of the fabled terra australis. The discovery of America only heightened Europeans' conviction that another vast continent, rich in resources, remained to be found.
So things stood in 1768, when London's august scientific group, the Royal Society, petitioned King George III to send a ship to the South Pacific. A rare astronomical event, the transit of Venus across the sun, was due to occur on June 3, 1769, and not again for 105 years. The society hoped that an accurate observation of the transit, from disparate points on the globe, would enable astronomers to calculate the earth's distance from the sun, part of the complex task of mapping the solar system. Half a century after Isaac Newton and almost three centuries after Christopher Columbus, basic questions of where things were — in the sky, as well as on earth — remained unresolved.
The king accepted the society's request, and ordered the Admiralty to fit out an appropriate ship. As commander, the Royal Society recommended Alexander Dalrymple, a distinguished theorist and cartographer who had sailed to the East Indies, and who believed so firmly in the southern continent that he put its breadth at exactly 5,323 miles and its population at fifty million. The Admiralty instead selected James Cook, a Navy officer whose oceangoing experience was limited to the North Atlantic.
On the face of it, this seemed an unlikely choice — and, among some in the establishment, it was unpopular. Cook was a virtual unknown outside Navy circles and a curiosity within. He had spent the previous decade charting the coast of Canada, a task at which he displayed exceptional talent. One admiral, noting "Mr. Cook's Genius and Capacity," observed of his charts: "They may be the means of directing many in the right way, but cannot mislead any." But Cook's rank remained that of second lieutenant, and, as an ill-educated man of low birth, married to the daughter of a dockside tavernkeeper, he didn't fit the mold of the scientific and naval elite.
Cook's bearing was as plain as his background. Though very tall for his day, at several inches over six feet, he was rawboned and narrow. The few surviving portraits show a commanding but austere figure: long straight nose, thin lips, high cheekbones, deep-set brown eyes. James Boswell described Cook as "a grave, steady man" who possessed "a ballance in his mind for truth as nice as scales for weighing a guinea."
This guarded, meticulous Yorkshireman also faced a mission much more daring than the astronomical voyage requested by the Royal Society. The Lords of the Admiralty dispatched Cook with two sets of orders. One instructed him to proceed to a recently discovered South Pacific island, named for King George, to observe the transit of Venus and survey harbors and bays. "When this Service is perform'd," the orders concluded, "you are to put to Sea without Loss of Time, and carry into execution the Additional Instructions contained in the inclosed Sealed Packet."
These orders, labeled "secret," laid out an ambitious plan for "making Discoverys of Countries hitherto unknown." In particular, Cook was to search unexplored latitudes for the fabled continent of Pomponius Mela and Marco Polo. "Whereas there is reason to imagine that a Continent or Land of great extent, may be found," the orders commanded, "You are to proceed to the southward in order to make discovery of the Continent abovementioned."
Excerpted from Blue Latitudes by Tony Horwitz. Copyright © 2002 Tony Horwitz. Excerpted by permission of Picador.
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
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Table of Contents
Prologue: The Distance Traveled
1. Pacific Northwest: One Week Before the Mast
2. Tahiti: Sic Transit Venus
3. To Bora-Bora: Sold a Pup
4. New Zealand: Warriors, Still
5. Botany Bay: In the Pure State of Nature
6. The Great Barrier Reef: Wrecked
7. Homeward Bound: The Hospital Ship
8. Savage Island: The Hunt for Red Bananas
9. Tonga: Where Time Begins, and Goes Back
10. North Yorkshire: A Plain, Zealous Man
11. London: Shipping Out, Again
12. Alaska: Outside Men
13. Hawaii: The Last Island
14. Kealakekua Bay: A Bad Day on Black Rock
Epilogue: A Period to His Labours
Notes on Sources
Most Helpful Customer Reviews
This is in my top 5 list of favorite books!! It is fascinating, funny at times, and informative.
Rarely does an author take you to a place well enough so your sense can imagine the sites, sounds and smells. Horwitz has done that in this fantastic story of following Captain Cook through his highs and his lows. Horwitz takes the reader there only because he's been there first hand. If you read one book on Captain Cook and the voyages of discovery in the Pacific Ocean, this is the book.
Horwitz fails to draw the reader into his book. In an attempt to prevent it from becoming a history book he slaps in his 'adventures' between Cook passages. By doing this the reader never gets a great taste of Cook or Horwitz. Furthermore, Horwitz seems overly critical of every island he comes to. He almost whines like a child when he finds the islands aren't like they were 200+ years ago, what did he expect? His blind love for Cook prevents him from presenting anything negative against Cook. When something rises, he quickly shoots it down with arguments that are very shaky.
Tony Horwitz takes us through a fantastic voyage cleverly interwoven through past and present by following Captain Cook's explorations. The book is well researched, most entertaining and reveals just how much of a true environmentalist Mr. Horwitz is at heart. While I personally met him at a booksigning this summer in Buzzards Bay, MA. I can attest to the fact that he is the most delightful story-teller in person as well as through his writing. A really interesting book and a 'good read.'
I read the whole book in one weekend while deployed here in Iraq. I wish all history was this entertaining to read. I will gladly read all Horwitz works while here. My next read will be 'Baghdad Without a Map'; hopefully this will provide some insight to the region I am currently occupying
I confess, I'm obsessed by Captain Cook's legacy. I've followed him from Antarctica to Alaska, even volunteering as docent on board Endeavour's replica ship. Blue Latitudes confirmed and enriched my experiences. Scholarship and adventure make irresistable reading. I read slowly to savor the flavor.
I grew up in Hawaii, so of course I'd heard of Captain Cook, and have even visited Kealakekua Bay several times. I first heard about this book on NPR, and immediately took a detour from my errands to find it. It was well worth it. Tony Horwitz traces the three voyages of James Cook, an amazing man who accurately charted one third of the planet, and manages not only to capture Captain Cook the explorer, but also Cook the man. Most fascinating for me was the attitudes of the peoples and cultures Cook encountered, both then and now. Is James Cook the villain, who is responsible for all the ills the cultures suffered at the hands of European expansion? Or was he at the very least, the most open-minded of the European "invaders", concerned for the effect his crew and others to come would have on the native peoples? These attitudes seem colored by both the prevailing culture (the warlike stance of the Maoris of New Zealand, or the more pacifistic view of the Aborigines of Australia) and the PR (sometimes false) generated by Cook's previous biographers. Regardless, James Cook was a complex man, who made questionable choices, particularly on his last voyage. Tony Horwitz' clear, easy writing style brings the Pacific regions... from Polynesia, Antarctica, and the Pacific northwest... and their people to life, often with great humor and great sympathy.
There are literally not enough stars for me to give this book. The style is highly readable, informative without being even remotely dry, and the author's sense of humor really helps to make the book a deceptively quick read. Perhaps more importantly to me, the references are immaculate and all the historical information is very well-researched. I initially borrowed this book from the Maine Charitable Mechanics Association Membership Library in Portland, Maine, but adore it so much that I'm going to buy a copy the first chance I get. A must-read for anyone who still wants to grow up to be an adventurer.
26. Blue Latitudes : Boldly Going Where Captain Cook Has Gone Before by Tony Horwitz (2002, 452 pages, read May 18-31)This was my first time reading Tony Horwitz, and also the first book I read on Hawaii for my June trip. Horwitz is along the lines of Bill Bryson in that his book informative, but mostly light and fun. However, whereas Bryson's books have a habit of drowning in trivia, it almost seems Horwitz can't go wrong. He has a charm, he focuses on interesting things, and he keeps the book entertaining throughout.The book itself is an inspiring look at Captain James Cooke and, especially, at Pacific Ocean. Cooke made first contact in New Zealand, Australia, Hawaii, and on several different islands throughout Pacific Oceania. An unusually expert charter, he filled out the map in the Pacific. He is roundly hated as the symbolic end of the native peoples in all these places. Either Cooke, or the mariners who followed his maps, brought the diseases and also opened the way to exploitation and colonization, leading to a wiping out of populations. Cooke the person was, however, was almost beyond reproach. The European mariners were a dark part of humanity, the worst of the worst, only more extreme because of the endless hardships they had to endure at sea. The record is painfully bad. But Cooke is an exception - responsible, knowledgeable, humble, he has a dignity in history...but it only lasts up to that point where he finally lost his cool and his life in Hawaii.This was very enjoyable despite being a bit long, and despite being a terrible read for Hawaii. It's long because Horwitz covers so much. It's the wrong book for Hawaii as that was James Cooke's last and fatal stop and it doesn't really appear in the book until near the end. But, despite the length, it's light and quick and left me craving more information.
I enjoyed this book immensely. I know many of the places described and it was fun to go back there with Tony and Roger. I liked the friendly, non-judgmental style of writing used. I liked the banter between Tony and Roger and knew a lot of guys like Roger when I was in the Navy. All of that was fun but so was the precis of Captain Cook's writings. A lot of work went into this I think.I would love to have dinner with Tony and Geraldine. I believe it would be a great evening and there would be a lot of really interesting conversation.I'm going now to find another one of his books - probably "Baghdad Without a Map".
A little disappointing in that it wasn't what I was expecting. I was thinking more along the lines of an adventure a la Kon Tiki, but what I got was more of a sociological analysis and consequences of the age of exploration. Well written, but just not my cup of tea.
Over all a good read. Portions were dry at times, but I learned so much and enjoyed it more than I would a regular biography. It was also interesting to learn about these men and how much they still love Captain Cook- Who knew he still had a fan club!
This is about the author's adventure to follow Cpt Cook's journeys. It is a quick and easy read, though it is easy to put down. His entertaining travel companion makes the story unpredictable and funny at the most inopportune times!
This was a pretty entertaining book. I thought the most interesting parts were to read about the initial reactions/interactions between Cook's crew and the peoples they encountered.
Not often do I read a book and I slow down near the end because I did not want it to end. This was such a book. "Boldly Going Where Captain Cook Has Gone Before" and drinking beer while doing it.
Inspired by Captain Kirk's injunction to "boldly go where no man has gone before," Tony Horowitz decides to follow in the footsteps of Captain Cook, one of the world's first adventurers. Horowitz's journey takes him to Fiji, Tahiti, Hawaii and obscure South Pacific islands where he witnesses natives struggling with the degradation of their culture and the destruction of their environment following an influx of tourism. Horowitz deftly weaves together his own travel tales and historical accounts of Cook's voyages. The result is a book that's both entertaining and informative.
Great read if you like travel and / or history. I really came to appreciate how hard it was to explore the world back in Cook's days, how little he is really admired, and how much the Europeans messed up the world! After I finished the book I had a better understanding of why the explorers and their crews did things that seem to be uncivilized and cruel to modern day people. And I agree with Horwitz that Cook got screwed on having few things named after him.
This is the book that got me hooked on Tony Horwitz's writing.Part travel book, part history, all fun. Horwitz retraces Captain Cook's path around the globe. This is the way history ought to be taught.
This is a fun read. Not too deep, but entertaining, educational, and worth reading.
This book is subtitled: Boldly Going Where Captain Cook Has Gone Before. In it, Tony Horwitz writes about visiting most of the places Captain James Cook "discovered" on his three exploratory voyages in the 18th century. Along the way, he and his friend Roger (my favorite person in the book) drink a lot, learn a lot, and develop even more respect for this fascinating and unusual man.Horwitz obviously admires Cook a great deal, but he balances his enthusiasm for the Captain with the views of the present-day descendants of the island natives Cook met on his travels. He describes Cook and his crew's interactions with the natives of Haiti, New Zealand, Tonga, Hawaii, Bora-Bora, Alaska, Australia, Western Canada, and more. I found the history fascinating, and the modern-day travelogue bits with Horwitz and Roger great fun. The description of Cooktown Days in Cooktown, Australia had me laughing hysterically.I strongly recommend this book to anyone who thought history was a bore in school. Books like this just might change your mind.
I loved this book because it was quite an adventure through the South Seas. Horowitz is a wonderful author, a distinct pleasure to read.
Excellent read. The author has a gift with words, and a gift with clarity. You will NOT be able to put this book down.
Enjoyed it very much and learned a great deal of history and geography