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Cisco Press
CCDA 200-310 Official Cert Guide / Edition 5

CCDA 200-310 Official Cert Guide / Edition 5

by Anthony Bruno, Steve Jordan
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Trust the best-selling Official Cert Guide series from Cisco Press to help you learn, prepare, and practice for exam success. They are built with the objective of providing assessment, review, and practice to help ensure you are fully prepared for your certification exam.

CCDA 200-310 Official Cert Guide presents you with an organized test preparation routine through the use of proven series elements and techniques. “Do I Know This Already?” quizzes open each chapter and allow you to decide how much time you need to spend on each section. Exam topic lists make referencing easy. Chapter-ending Exam Preparation Tasks help you drill on key concepts you must know thoroughly.

  • Master Cisco CCDA 200-310 exam topics

  • Assess your knowledge with chapter-opening quizzes

  • Review key concepts with exam preparation tasks

  • Practice with realistic exam questions

CCDA 200-310 Official Cert Guide focuses specifically on the objectives for the newest Cisco CCDA DESGN exam. Expert networking consultants Anthony Bruno and Steve Jordan share preparation hints and test-taking tips, helping you identify areas of weakness and improve both your conceptual knowledge and hands-on skills. Material is presented in a concise manner, focusing on increasing your understanding and retention of exam topics.

Your downloadable Pearson IT Certification Practice Test engine allows you to focus on individual topic areas or take a complete, timed exam. The assessment engine also tracks your performance and provides feedback on a module-by-module basis, laying out a complete assessment of your knowledge to help you focus your study where it is needed most.

Well-regarded for its level of detail, assessment features, comprehensive design scenarios, and challenging review questions and exercises, this official study guide helps you master the concepts and techniques that will allow you to succeed on the exam the first time.

The official study guide helps you master all the topics on the newest CCDA DESGN exam, including:

  • Design methodologies, including PBM, network characterization, and top-down/bottom-up approaches
  • Design objectives: modularity, hierarchy, scalability, resilience, fault domains
  • Addressing and routing protocols in existing networks
  • Enterprise network design: campus, enterprise, and branch
  • Expanding existing networks: wireless, security, collaboration, virtualization, programmability, data centers, and more

CCDA 200-310 Official Cert Guide is part of a recommended learning path from Cisco that includes simulation and hands-on training from authorized Cisco Learning Partners and self-study products from Cisco Press. To find out more about instructor-led training, e-learning, and hands-on instruction offered by authorized Cisco Learning Partners worldwide, please visit

The print edition of the CCDA 200-310 Official Cert Guide contains two free, complete practice exams.

Also available from Cisco Press for Cisco CCDA study is the CCDA 200-310 Official Cert Guide Premium Edition eBook and Practice Test. This digital-only certification preparation product combines an eBook with enhanced Pearson IT Certification Practice Test.

This integrated learning package:

  • Allows you to focus on individual topic areas or take complete, timed exams

  • Includes direct links from each question to detailed tutorials to help you understand the concepts behind the questions

  • Provides unique sets of exam-realistic practice questions

  • Tracks your performance and provides feedback on a module-by-module basis, laying out a complete assessment of your knowledge to help you focus your study where it is needed most

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781587144547
Publisher: Cisco Press
Publication date: 07/12/2016
Series: Official Cert Guide Series
Edition description: New Edition
Pages: 816
Sales rank: 517,535
Product dimensions: 9.20(w) x 7.10(h) x 1.90(d)

About the Author

Anthony Bruno, CCIE No. 2738, is a Consulting Director with BT with more than 20 years of experience in the internetworking field. Previously, he worked for International Network Services, Lucent Technologies, and as a captain in the U.S. Air Force. His other industry certifications include CCDP, PMP, CCNP Security, Cisco Certified Business Value Practitioner, Cisco Data Center Network Infrastructure Specialist, Cisco Security Solutions & Design Specialist, and ITILv3 Foundation. He has consulted for many enterprise and service provider customers in the design, implementation, and optimization of large-scale networks. Anthony leads architecture and design teams in building nextgeneration networks for his customers. He completed his Master of Science in Electrical Engineering at the University of Missouri—Rolla in 1994 and his Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering at the University of Puerto Rico—Mayaguez in 1990. He is also a part-time instructor for the University of Phoenix—Online, teaching networking courses.

Outside of work Anthony enjoys running marathons, Spartan obstacle races, and Olympic and Ironman distance triathlons.

Steve Jordan, CCIE No. 11293, is a Senior Technology Manager with Accudata Systems and has 20 years experience in the field of internetworking. For the last 10 years, Steve has specialized in data center architectures involving compute, network, storage, virtualization, and SDN. Over the years, Steve has worked with many enterprise and service provider customers in both pre-sales and post-sales engineering and architecture roles,

along with working at several Cisco Gold Partners. He has extensive experience in data center architecture and design and has implemented solutions in many financial, energy, retail, healthcare, education, and telecommunications industries. Steve is a 10-Year triple CCIE in the tracks of Routing & Switching, Storage Networking, and Data Center. His other certifications include VMware VCIX-NV, VCP-NV, VCP4-DCV, VCP5-DCV, CCDP, CCNP, ACI-SE, and ACI-FE.

Steve lives in Houston, Texas, with his wife and three sons. When he is not working on technology, Steve can be found traveling to new places, finding great food, and listening to live music.

Steve was also the coauthor for the previous editions of the CCDA Official Cert Guide.

Table of Contents

Introduction xxxvi

Part I General Network Design

Chapter 1 Network Design Methodology 3

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 3

Foundation Topics 6

Cisco Architectures for the Enterprise 6

Borderless Networks Architecture 7

Collaboration and Video Architecture 8

Data Center and Virtualization Architecture 8

Cisco Design Lifecycle: Plan, Build, Manage 9

Plan Phase 10

Build Phase 11

Manage Phase 11

Prepare, Plan, Design, Implement, Operate, and Optimize Phases 12

Prepare Phase 14

Plan Phase 14

Design Phase 14

Implement Phase 15

Operate Phase 15

Optimize Phase 15

Summary of PPDIOO Phases 15

Project Deliverables 16

Design Methodology 16

Identifying Customer Design Requirements 17

Characterizing the Existing Network 18

Steps in Gathering Information 19

Network Audit Tools 19

Network Checklist 23

Designing the Network Topology and Solutions 24

Top-Down Approach 24

Pilot and Prototype Tests 25

Design Document 25

References and Recommended Reading 26

Exam Preparation Tasks 28

Review All Key Topics 28

Complete Tables and Lists from Memory 28

Define Key Terms 28

Q&A 28

Chapter 2 Network Design Models 39

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 39

Foundation Topics 41

Hierarchical Network Models 41

Benefits of the Hierarchical Model 41

Hierarchical Network Design 42

Hierarchical Model Examples 46

Hub-and-Spoke Design 48

Collapsed Core Design 49

Cisco Enterprise Architecture Model 49

Enterprise Campus Module 50

Enterprise Edge Area 52

Service Provider Edge Module 56

Remote Modules 57

High Availability Network Services 59

Workstation-to-Router Redundancy and LAN High Availability Protocols 60

Server Redundancy 62

Route Redundancy 63

Link Media Redundancy 65

References and Recommended Reading 66

Exam Preparation Tasks 68

Review All Key Topics 68

Complete Tables and Lists from Memory 68

Define Key Terms 68

Q&A 68

Part II LAN and WAN Design

Chapter 3 Enterprise LAN Design 81

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 81

Foundation Topics 83

LAN Media 83

Ethernet Design Rules 83

Gigabit Ethernet Design Rules 85

10 Gigabit Ethernet Design Rules 87

EtherChannel 88

Comparison of Campus Media 88

LAN Hardware 89

Repeaters 89

Hubs 89

Bridges 89

Switches 90

Routers 91

Layer 3 Switches 92

Campus LAN Design and Best Practices 93

Best Practices for Hierarchical Layers 94

STP Design Considerations 101

Cisco STP Toolkit 103

VLAN and Trunk Considerations 105

Unidirectional Link Detection (UDLD) Protocol 105

Large-Building LANs 106

Enterprise Campus LANs 107

Medium-Size LANs 109

Small and Remote Site LANs 110

Server Farm Module 110

Enterprise Data Center Infrastructure 111

Campus LAN QoS Considerations 111

Multicast Traffic Considerations 113

References and Recommended Readings 114

Exam Preparation Tasks 115

Review All Key Topics 115

Complete Tables and Lists from Memory 115

Define Key Terms 115

Q&A 115

Chapter 4 Data Center Design 127

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 127

Foundation Topics 130

Enterprise DC Architecture 130

Data Center Foundation Components 131

Data Center Topology Components 132

Data Center Network Programmability 133

Challenges in the DC 136

Data Center Facility Aspects 136

Data Center Space 138

Data Center Power 139

Data Center Cooling 140

Data Center Heat 141

Data Center Cabling 141

Enterprise DC Infrastructure 143

Data Center Storage 144

Data Center Reference Architecture 146

Defining the DC Access Layer 147

Defining the DC Aggregation Layer 148

Defining the DC Core Layer 149

Security in the DC 150

Fabric Extenders 151

Virtualization Overview 151

Challenges 151

Defining Virtualization and Benefits 151

Virtualization Risks 152

Types of Virtualization 152

Virtualization Technologies 153

VSS 153

VRF 154

vPC 154

Device Contexts 155

Server Virtualization 155

Server Scaling 155

Virtual Switching 156

Network Virtualization Design Considerations 156

Data Center Interconnect 157

DCI Use Cases 157

DCI Transport Options 158

DCI L2 Considerations 159

Load Balancing in the DC 159

Application Load Balancing 159

Network Load Balancing 160

References and Recommended Readings 160

Exam Preparation Tasks 161

Review All Key Topics 161

Complete Tables and Lists from Memory 162

Define Key Terms 162

Q&A 162

Chapter 5 Wireless LAN Design 167

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 167

Foundation Topics 169

Wireless LAN Technologies 169

WLAN Standards 169

Service Set Identifier 171

WLAN Layer 2 Access Method 172

WLAN Security 172

Cisco Unified Wireless Network 175

Cisco UWN Architecture 175

Autonomous Access Points 176

Centralized WLAN Architecture 177


WLAN Authentication 182

WLAN Controller Components 183

Roaming and Mobility Groups 186

WLAN Design 190

Controller Redundancy Design: Deterministic vs. Dynamic 190

Radio Management and Radio Groups 192

RF Site Survey 194

Using EoIP Tunnels for Guest Services 194

Wireless Mesh for Outdoor Wireless 195

Campus Design Considerations 196

Branch Design Considerations 199

References and Recommended Readings 201

Exam Preparation Tasks 203

Review All Key Topics 203

Complete Tables and Lists from Memory 203

Define Key Terms 203

Q&A 204

Chapter 6 WAN Technologies and the Enterprise Edge 215

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 215

Foundation Topics 218

WAN and Enterprise Edge Overview 218

WAN Defined 218

WAN Edge Module 219

Enterprise Edge Modules 219

WAN Transport Technologies 220

ISDN 221

Digital Subscriber Line 222

Cable 222

Wireless 223

Frame Relay 224

Time-Division Multiplexing 225

Metro Ethernet 225


Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) 226

Dark Fiber 227

Dense Wavelength-Division Multiplexing 228

Ordering WAN Technology and Contracts 228

WAN and Edge Design Methodologies 229

Response Time 230

Throughput 231

Reliability 231

Bandwidth Considerations 231

WAN Link Categories 232

Optimizing Bandwidth Using QoS 233

DMZ Connectivity 236

Segmenting DMZs 237

DMZ Services 238

Internet Connectivity 238

Centralized Internet (Branch) vs. Direct Internet (Branch) 240

High Availability for the Internet Edge 240

VPN Network Design 240

References and Recommended Readings 242

Exam Preparation Tasks 243

Review All Key Topics 243

Complete Tables and Lists from Memory 243

Define Key Terms 243

Q&A 244

Chapter 7 WAN Design 249

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 249

Foundation Topics 252

Traditional WAN Technologies 252

Hub-and-Spoke Topology 252

Full-Mesh Topology 253

Partial-Mesh Topology 253

Point-to-Point Topology 254

Remote Site Connectivity 254

Enterprise VPN vs. Service Provider VPN 255

Enterprise Managed VPN: IPsec 255

Service Provider—Managed Offerings 259

VPN Benefits 263

WAN Backup Design 263

WAN Backup over the Internet 263

Enterprise WAN Architecture 264

Cisco Enterprise MAN/WAN 265

Enterprise WAN/MAN Architecture Comparison 266

Enterprise WAN Components 268

Comparing Hardware and Software 269

Enterprise Branch Architecture 270

Branch Design 270

Branch Connectivity 271

Redundancy for Branches 271

Single WAN Carrier vs. Dual WAN Carriers 271

Single MPLS Carrier Site 272

Dual MPLS Carriers 272

Hybrid WAN: L3 VPN with IPsec VPN 273

Enterprise Teleworker Design 279

ISRs for Teleworkers 280

References and Recommended Readings 280

Exam Preparation Tasks 281

Review All Key Topics 281

Complete Tables and Lists from Memory 281

Define Key Terms 281

Q&A 282

Part III The Internet Protocol and Routing Protocols

Chapter 8 Internet Protocol Version 4 Design 287

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 287

Foundation Topics 289

IPv4 Header 289

ToS 291

IPv4 Fragmentation 295

IPv4 Addressing 296

IPv4 Address Classes 297

IPv4 Address Types 299

IPv4 Private Addresses 299

NAT 300

IPv4 Address Subnets 302

Mask Nomenclature 302

IP Address Subnet Design Example 303

Determining the Network Portion of an IP Address 304

Variable-Length Subnet Masks 305

IPv4 Addressing Design 310

Goal of IPv4 Address Design 310

Plan for Future Use of IPv4 Addresses 310

Performing Route Summarization 311

Plan for a Hierarchical IP Address Network 311

Private and Public IP Address and NAT Guidelines 313

Steps for Creating an IPv4 Address Plan 313

Case Study: IP Address Subnet Allocation 314

Address Assignment and Name Resolution 316

Recommended Practices of IP Address Assignment 317


DHCP 317

DNS 319

ARP 321

References and Recommended Readings 322

Exam Preparation Tasks 324

Review All Key Topics 324

Complete Tables and Lists from Memory 324

Define Key Terms 325

Q&A 325

Chapter 9 Internet Protocol Version 6 Design 333

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 333

Foundation Topics 336

Introduction to IPv6 336

IPv6 Header 337

IPv6 Address Representation 339

IPv4-Compatible IPv6 Addresses 339

IPv6 Prefix Representation 340

IPv6 Address Scope Types and Address Allocations 340

IPv6 Address Allocations 341

IPv6 Unicast Address 342

IPv6 Anycast Addresses 344

IPv6 Multicast Addresses 344

IPv6 Mechanisms 347

ICMPv6 347

IPv6 Neighbor Discovery Protocol 348

IPv6 Name Resolution 348

Path MTU Discovery 349

IPv6 Address-Assignment Strategies 350

IPv6 Security 352

IPv6 Routing Protocols 353

RIPng 353

EIGRP for IPv6 353

OSPFv3 353

IS-IS for IPv6 353

BGP4 Multiprotocol Extensions (MP-BGP) for IPv6 353

IPv6 Addressing Design 354

Planning for Addressing with IPv6 354

Route Summarization with IPv6 354

IPv6 Private Addressing 355

IPv6 for the Enterprise 355

IPv6 Address Allocation 355

IPv4-to-IPv6 Transition Mechanisms and Deployment Models 357

Dual-Stack Mechanism 357

IPv6 over IPv4 Tunnels 357

Protocol Translation Mechanisms 359

IPv6 Deployment Models 360

IPv6 Comparison with IPv4 363

References and Recommended Readings 364

Exam Preparation Tasks 367

Review All Key Topics 367

Complete Tables and Lists from Memory 368

Define Key Terms 368

Q&A 368

Chapter 10 Routing Protocol Characteristics, RIP, EIGRP, and IS-IS 377

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 377

Foundation Topics 380

Routing Protocol Characteristics 380

Static Versus Dynamic Route Assignment 380

Interior Versus Exterior Routing Protocols 382

Distance-Vector Routing Protocols 383

Link-State Routing Protocols 384

Distance-Vector Routing Protocols Versus Link-State Protocols 384

Hierarchical Versus Flat Routing Protocols 385

Classless Versus Classful Routing Protocols 385

IPv4 Versus IPv6 Routing Protocols 386

Administrative Distance 386

Routing Protocol Metrics and Loop Prevention 388

Hop Count 388

Bandwidth 389

Cost 389

Load 390

Delay 391

Reliability 391

Maximum Transmission Unit 391

Routing Loop-Prevention Schemes 392

Triggered Updates 393

Summarization 393

RIPv2 and RIPng 393

Authentication 394

RIPv2 Routing Database 394

RIPv2 Message Format 394

RIPv2 Timers 396

RIPv2 Design 396

RIPv2 Summary 396

RIPng 397


EIGRP Components 399

EIGRP Timers 401

EIGRP Metrics 401

EIGRP Packet Types 403

EIGRP Design 404

EIGRP for IPv4 Summary 406

EIGRP for IPv6 (EIGRPv6) Networks 406

IS-IS 408

IS-IS Metrics 409

IS-IS Operation and Design 409

IS-IS Summary 411

References and Recommended Readings 412

Exam Preparation Tasks 413

Review All Key Topics 413

Complete Tables and Lists from Memory 413

Define Key Terms 413

Q&A 414

Chapter 11 OSPF, BGP, Route Manipulation, and IP Multicast 427

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 427

Foundation Topics 430

OSPFv2 430

OSPFv2 Metric 430

OSPFv2 Adjacencies and Hello Timers 431

OSPFv2 Areas 432

OSPF Router Types 434

OSPF DRs 435

LSA Types 436

Autonomous System External Path Types 436

Stub Areas 437

OSPFv2 Router Authentication 439

OSPFv2 Summary 439

OSPFv3 439

OSPFv3 Changes from OSPFv2 440

OSPFv3 Areas and Router Types 440

OSPFv3 LSAs 441

OSPFv3 Summary 443

BGP 443

BGP Neighbors 444

Route Reflectors 446

Confederations 448

BGP Administrative Distance 449

BGP Summary 454

Route Manipulation 455

PBR 455

Route Summarization 455

Route Redistribution 458

Route Filtering 461

Routing Protocols on the Hierarchical Network Infrastructure 462

IP Multicast Review 463

Multicast Addresses 463

Layer 3 to Layer 2 Mapping 464

IGMP 465

Sparse Versus Dense Multicast 467

Multicast Source and Shared Trees 468

PIM 468


IPv6 Multicast Addresses 470

References and Recommended Readings 471

Exam Preparation Tasks 473

Review All Key Topics 473

Complete Tables and Lists from Memory 473

Define Key Terms 474

Q&A 474

Part IV Security, Convergence, Network Management

Chapter 12 Managing Security 485

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 485

Foundation Topics 488

Network Security Overview 488

Security Legislation 489

Security Threats 490

Security Risks 494

Security Policy and Process 497

Security Policy Defined 498

Basic Approach of a Security Policy 498

Purpose of Security Policies 499

Security Policy Components 499

Risk Assessment 500

Risk Index 501

Continuous Security 501

Integrating Security Mechanisms into Network Design 502

Trust and Identity Management 503

Trust 503

Domains of Trust 503

Identity 504

Network Access Control 506

Secure Services 506

Encryption Fundamentals 507

Encryption Keys 507

VPN Protocols 508

Transmission Confidentiality 509

Data Integrity 509

Threat Defense 510

Physical Security 510

Infrastructure Protection 512

Security Management Solutions 512

References and Recommended Readings 513

Exam Preparation Tasks 514

Review All Key Topics 514

Complete Tables and Lists from Memory 514

Define Key Terms 514

Q&A 515

Chapter 13 Security Solutions 521

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 521

Foundation Topics 524

Cisco SAFE Architecture 524

Network Security Platforms 525

Cisco Security Control Framework 526

Trust and Identity Technologies 527

Firewall Fundamentals 527

Firewall ACLs 530

Cisco Identity-Based Network Services 531

Identity and Access Control Deployments 532

Detecting and Mitigating Threats 533

IPS/IDS Fundamentals 534

IPS/IDS Guidelines 535

Threat Detection and Mitigation Technologies 536

Threat-Detection and Threat-Mitigation Solutions 536


Cisco ESA 538

Cisco WSA 538

Security Management Applications 539

Security Platform Solutions 540

Security Management Network 540

Integrating Security into Network Devices 541

IOS Security 542

ISR G2 Security Hardware Options 542

Cisco Security Appliances 543

Catalyst 6500 Service Modules 544

Endpoint Security 545

Securing the Enterprise 545

Implementing Security in the Campus 545

Implementing Security in the Data Center 546

Implementing Security in the Enterprise Edge 548

References and Recommended Readings 550

Exam Preparation Tasks 552

Review All Key Topics 552

Complete Tables and Lists from Memory 552

Define Key Terms 552

Q&A 553

Chapter 14 Voice and Video Design 557

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 557

Foundation Topics 559

Traditional Voice Architectures 559

PBX and PSTN Switches 559

Local Loop and Trunks 560

Ports 561

Major Analog and Digital Signaling Types 562

PSTN Numbering Plan 567

Other PSTN Services 568

Voice Engineering Terminology 569

Converged Multiservice Networks 571

VoIP 572

IPT Components 574

IPT Deployment Models 576

Video Deployment Considerations 578

Codecs 580

VoIP Control and Transport Protocols 581

IPT Design 590

Bandwidth 590

Calculating Voice Bandwidth 591

Delay Components in VoIP Networks 592

Packet Loss 594

Echo Cancellation 595

QoS and Bandwidth Mechanisms for VoIP and Video Networks 595

IPT Design Recommendations 600

References and Recommended Readings 602

Exam Preparation Tasks 604

Review All Key Topics 604

Complete Tables and Lists from Memory 604

Define Key Terms 605

Q&A 605

Chapter 15 Network Management Protocols 617

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 617

Foundation Topics 619

Simple Network Management Protocol 619

SNMP Components 620

MIB 620

SNMP Message Versions 622

Other Network Management Technologies 624

RMON 624

NetFlow 626

CDP 629

LLDP 630

Syslog 630

References and Recommended Reading 631

Exam Preparation Tasks 633

Review All Key Topics 633

Complete Tables and Lists from Memory 633

Define Key Terms 633

Q&A 634

Part V Comprehensive Scenarios and Final Prep

Chapter 16 Comprehensive Scenarios 641

Scenario One: Friendswood Hospital 641

Scenario One Questions 642

Scenario Two: Big Oil and Gas 642

Scenario Two Questions 643

Scenario Three: Video Games Spot 643

Scenario Three Questions 644

Scenario Four: Diamond Communications 645

Scenario Four Questions 646

Scenario Answers 646

Scenario One Answers 646

Scenario Two Answers 650

Scenario Three Answers 651

Scenario Four Answers 652

Chapter 17 Final Preparation 655

Tools for Final Preparation 655

Review Tools on the Companion Website 655

Pearson Cert Practice Test Engine and Questions 655

The Cisco Learning Network 657

Memory Tables 657

Chapter-Ending Review Tools 658

Suggested Plan for Final Review/Study 658

Subnetting Practice 658

Using the Exam Engine 659

Summary 660

Part VI Appendixes

Appendix A Answers to the Do I Know This Already?” Quizzes and Q&A

Questions 663

Appendix B CCDA 200-310 version 1.0. Exam Updates 699

Appendix C OSI Model, TCP/IP Architecture, and Numeric Conversion 701

Glossary 717

Elements Available on the Book Website

Appendix D Memory Tables

Appendix E Memory Tables Answer Key

Appendix F Study Planner

9781587144547, TOC, 5/25/2016

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CCDA 200-310 Official Cert Guide / Edition 5 1 out of 5 based on 0 ratings. 1 reviews.
Anonymous More than 1 year ago
While the book is somewhat educational, studying for the CCDA and taking the test has gotten ridiculous expectations lately. Barely any material from the book is actually on the test and has always been the Cisco way. The pearson practice test that comes as a coupon falsely prepares you to score a 790 but Cisco expect you to get a 860/1000. This book is worth no more than $10 since you will need to purchase additional training guides to help you pass the ridiculous expectation from Cisco. $300 just went down the toilet.