ISBN-10:
1402052863
ISBN-13:
9781402052866
Pub. Date:
05/03/2007
Publisher:
Springer Netherlands
Contaminated Rivers: A Geomorphological-Geochemical Approach to Site Assessment and Remediation / Edition 1

Contaminated Rivers: A Geomorphological-Geochemical Approach to Site Assessment and Remediation / Edition 1

Hardcover

Current price is , Original price is $99.99. You

Temporarily Out of Stock Online

Please check back later for updated availability.

Overview

The geomorphological, surficial and geochemical processes and conditions of rivers require a tailored set of strategies and programs to successfully clean up contaminated river reaches. The primary purpose of this book is not only to provide students and professionals with an introductory understanding of fluvial geomorphic principles but also to explain using a process oriented approach how these geomorphic principles can be integrated with geochemical data to cost-effectively characterize, assess and remediate contaminated river systems. Numerous case studies from North America and many other parts of the world are included.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781402052866
Publisher: Springer Netherlands
Publication date: 05/03/2007
Edition description: 2007
Pages: 418
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 9.25(h) x 0.04(d)

Table of Contents


Preface     xiii
Contaminated Rivers: An Overview     1
Introduction     1
Types of Contaminants     3
Organic Contaminants     3
Inorganic Contaminants     8
National Assessments of River Health     11
The National Water Quality Inventory     12
The National Sediment Quality Survey     14
The National Water-Quality Assessment Program     17
Sources of Contamination     18
The Dissolved Versus Particulate Load     21
Site Characterization, Assessment, and Remediation     23
The Geomorphological-Geochemical Approach     27
Summary     30
Suggested Readings     31
Sediment-Trace Metal Interactions 24     33
Introduction     33
Physical Partitioning of Trace Metals in Sediment     34
Chemical Partitioning of Trace Elements in Sediment     39
Mechanistic Associations     39
Chemically Reactive Substrates     53
Elemental Speciation     60
Chemical Remobilization     63
Summary     66
Suggested Readings     67
Basin Processes     69
Introduction     69
Hillslope Hydrology     70
Direct Runoff Generation     70
Flood Hydrographs     76
Contaminant Transport Pathways     80
The Controlling Factors     80
Transport via Hortonian Overland Flow     84
Mapping Spatial Variations in Metal Sources     85
Hillslope Erosion     88
Basic Mechanics     88
Measurement of Erosion Rates     89
Prediction of Erosion Rates     91
Summary     101
Suggested Readings     102
The Water Column - Concentration and Load     103
Introduction     103
Temporal Variations in Concentration     104
Dissolved Constituents     104
Particulate and Particulate-Borne Contaminant Concentrations     113
Sediment and Contaminant Loads     118
Load Estimation     118
The Effective Transporting Discharge     123
Summary     125
Suggested Readings     126
The Channel Bed - Contaminant Transport and Storage     127
Introduction     127
Sediment Transport     128
Modes of Transport     128
Channelized Flow      129
Entrainment     132
Processes of Contaminant Dispersal     136
Hydraulic Sorting     136
Dilution and Exchange with the Floodplain     138
Sediment Storage and Exchange Mechanisms     140
Geochemical Processes and Biological Uptake     142
Downstream Patterns     144
Impoundment Failures     148
Deposition and Storage along a Reach     151
Channel Patterns     152
Trace Metal Partitioning Mechanisms     162
Implications to Sampling     168
Physical and Mathematical Manipulations     170
Temporal Variations in Concentration     173
Summary     175
Suggested Readings     176
Floodplains     177
Introduction     177
Floodplains: Definition     178
The Formative Processes     180
Floodplain Sediments     185
Floodplain Deposits     187
Trace Metal Storage and Distribution     193
Grain Size Variations     196
Residence Time and Deposit Age     198
Sediment Mixing and Homogenization     200
Post-Depositional Processes     200
Overbank Sediments     202
Depositional Rates and Patterns     203
Geographical Patterns in Contaminant Concentrations     209
Documenting Pollution Histories     214
Sediment and Contaminant Source Determination     219
Non-point Source Multivariate Fingerprinting Methods     220
Isotopic Tracing Methods     222
Physical Remobilization     227
Bank Erosion Processes     228
Summary     232
Suggested Readings     234
River Metamorphosis     235
Introduction     235
The Balanced Condition     235
Thresholds, Complex Response, and Process Linkages     241
Adjustments in Channel Gradient, Shape, and Pattern     248
Effects of River Metamorphosis     252
Terraces     254
Definition and Formative Processes     254
Trace Metal Distributions     258
Quantifying Extent and Magnitude of Contamination     262
Summary     269
Suggested Readings     270
Remediation and Remediation Standards     271
Introduction     271
Setting Remediation Standards     273
Background Concentrations      276
Health and Risk Based Standards     282
Prioritizing Cleanup     285
Summary     287
Suggested Readings     288
Ex Situ Remediation and Channel Restoration     289
Introduction     289
Ex Situ Remediation Techniques     291
Excavation     292
Dredging     294
Ex Situ Treatments     302
Dewatering and Particle Separation     303
Soil Washing     305
Other Treatment Alternatives     308
River Restoration and Rehabilitation     310
Goals and Objectives     310
Channel Reconstruction     313
In-stream Structures, Bank Protection, and Habitat Formation     317
Summary     324
Suggested Readings     325
In Situ Remediation     327
Introduction     327
In Situ Extraction     328
Soil Flushing     328
Electrokinetic Separation     330
Phytoremediation     334
In Situ Containment     338
In Situ (Subaqueous) Capping     338
Soil and Sediment Capping     341
In Situ Solidification and Stabilization      342
Phytostabilization and Immobilization     343
Monitored Natural Recovery     346
Summary     350
Suggested Readings     350
Dating Techniques     351
Introduction     351
Short-Lived Radionuclides (Pb-210 and Cs-137)     352
Radiocarbon (C-14)     357
Luminescence Techniques (TL, IRSL, and OSL)     358
Marker Beds (Tephra, Trace Metals)     359
Dendrochronology     361
Unit Conversions and Elemental Data     365
References     359
Glossary     399
Credits     495
Index     413

Customer Reviews

Most Helpful Customer Reviews

See All Customer Reviews