The unique collaborative effort of a distinguished interdisciplinary team — a professor of English and a professor of philosophy — Current Issues and Enduring Questions is a balanced and flexible book that provides the benefit of the authors’ dual expertise in effective persuasive writing and rigorous critical thinking. Its comprehensive coverage of classic and contemporary approaches to argument includes Aristotle, Toulmin, and a range of alternative views, making it an extraordinarily versatile text. Readings on contemporary controversies (including the purpose of a college education, immigration, a peacetime draft, and obesity) and classic philosophical questions (such as, "How free is the will of the individual?") are sure to spark student interest and lively discussion and writing. Refined through seven widely adopted previous editions, it has been revised to address current student interests and trends in argument, research, and writing, and has been updated with compelling new topics and readings and more on analyzing visuals and presenting oral arguments. No other text and reader offers such an extensive resource for teaching argument.
|Publisher:||St. Martin's Press|
About the Author
Sylvan Barnet, professor of English and former director of writing at Tufts University, is the most prolific and consistently successful college English textbook author of the past 30 years. His several texts on writing and his numerous anthologies for introductory composition and literature courses have remained leaders in their field through many editions.
Hugo Bedau, professor of philosophy at Tufts University, has served as chair of the philosophy department and chair of the university’s committee on College Writing. An internationally respected expert on the death penalty, and on moral, legal, and political philosophy, he has written or edited a number of books on these topics. He is the author of Thinking and Writing about Philosophy, Second Edition (Bedford/St. Martin’s).
Table of Contents
PART I. CRITICAL THINKING AND READING
1. Critical Thinking
Thinking About Drivers’ Licenses and Photographic Identification
Thinking About Another Issue Concerning Drivers’ Licenses: Imagination, Analysis, Evaluation
Writing as a Way of Thinking
A CHECKLIST FOR CRITICAL THINKING
A Short Essay Illustrating Critical Thinking
Alan Dershowitz, Why Fear National ID Cards?
A CHECKLIST FOR EXAMINING ASSUMPTIONS
]Thinking about Wild Horses
]Deanne Stillman, Last Roundup for Wild Horses
A CHECKLIST FOR EVALUATING LETTERS OF RESPONSE
Letters of Response By Holly Williams and Tom Burke
]Luke Saginaw (Student Essay), Why Flag-Burning Should Not Be Permitted
Five Exercises in Critical Thinking
2. Critical Reading: Getting Started
Skimming: Finding the Thesis
Reading With A Pencil: Underlining, Highlighting, Annotating
ÒThis; Therefore, ThatÓ
First, Second, and Third Thoughts
Summarizing and Paraphrasing
]A Note About Paraphrase and Plagiarism
]Last Words (Almost) About Summarizing
Susan Jacoby, A First Amendment Junkie
Summarizing Jacoby, Paragraph by Paragraph
A CHECKLIST FOR GETTING STARTED
]Gwen Wilde (Student Essay), Why the Pledge of Allegiance Should Be Revised
A Casebook for Critical Reading: Should Some Kinds of SpeechBe Censored?
Susan Brownmiller, Let’s Put Pornography Back In the Closet
Charles R. Lawrence III, On Racist Speech
Derek Bok, Protecting Freedom of Expression on the Campus
]Stanley Fish, Conspiracy Theories
]Letters of Response By Jonah Seligman, Richard DiMatteo, Miriam Cherkes-Julkowski, Joseph Kyle, and Patrick Ward
Jean Kilbourne, "Own This Child"
Exercise: Letter to the Editor
3. Critical Reading: Getting Deeper Into Arguments
Persuasion, Argument, Dispute
Reason Versus Rationalization
Some Procedures in Argument
Premises and Syllogisms
A CHECKLIST FOR EVALUATING STATISTICAL EVIDENCE
Does All Writing Contain Arguments?
A CHECKLIST FOR ANALYZING AN ARGUMENT
An Example: An Argument and a Look at the Writer’s Strategies
George F. Will, Being Green at Ben and Jerry’s
George F. Wills’s Strategies
Arguments for Analysis
Gloria Jiminez (Student Essay), Against the Odds, and Against the Common Good
Anna Lisa Raya (Student Essay), It’s Hard Enough Being Me
Ronald Takaki, The Harmful Myth of Asian Superiority
James Q. Wilson, Just Take Away Their Guns
]Nadya Labi, Classrooms for Sale
]Nadine Strossen, Everyone Is Watching You
]E-Mail Responses to Nadine Strossen
]Sally Satel, Death’s Waiting List
]Letters of Response By Dorothy H. Hayes, Charles B. Fruit, and Michelle Goodwin
]Paul Kane, A Peaceful Call to Arms
]Letters of Response By Julie E. Dinnerstein, Murray Polner, Joan Z. Greiner, and Joshua Zimmerman
4. Visual Rhetoric: Images As Arguments
Some Uses of Images
Appeals to the Eye
Are Some Images Not Fit to Be Shown?
Exercises: Thinking About Images
A CHECKLIST FOR ANALYZING IMAGES (ESPECIALLY ADVERTISEMENTS)
]Writing About a Political Cartoon
]A CHECKLIST FOR ANALYZING POLITICAL CARTOONS
]Jackson Smith (Student Essay), Pledging Nothing?
Visuals as Aids to Clarity: Maps, Graphs, Tables, and Pie Charts
]A CHECKLIST FOR CHARTS AND GRAPHS
A Note on Using Visuals in Your Own Paper
A Note on Formatting Your Paper: Document Design
Additional Images for Analysis
Nora Ephron, The Boston Photographs
PART II. CRITICAL WRITING
5. Writing An Analysis of An Argument
Analyzing An Argument
Examining The Author’s Thesis
Examining The Author’s Purpose
Examining The Author’s Methods
Examining The Author’s Persona
]A CHECKLIST FOR ANALYZING A TEXT
]An Argument, Its Elements, and a Student’s Analysis of the Argument
]Nicholas D. Kristof, For Environmental Balance, Pick Up a Rifle
]Betsy Swinton (Student Essay), Tracking Kristof
]An Analysis of the Student’s Analysis
A CHECKLIST FOR WRITING AN ANALYSIS OF AN ARGUMENT
Arguments for Analysis
Jeff Jacoby, Bring Back Flogging
John Irving, Wrestling with Title IX
Peter Singer, Animal Liberation
Jonathan Swift, A Modest Proposal
6. Developing an Argument of Your Own
Planning, Drafting, and Revising an Argument
]A CHECKLIST FOR A THESIS STATEMENT
Imagining an Audience
The Audience as Collaborator
]A CHECKLIST FOR IMAGINING AN AUDIENCE
The Opening Paragraphs
Organizing and Revising the Body of the Essay
Two Uses of an Outline
Tone and the Writer’s Persona
We, One, or I?
Avoiding Sexist Language
A CHECKLIST FOR ATTENDING TO THE NEEDS OF THE AUDIENCE
A PEER REVIEW CHECKLIST FOR A DRAFT OF AN ARGUMENT
A Student’s Essay, from Rough Notes to Final Version
Emily Andrews, Why I Don’t Spare "Spare Change"
The Essay Analyzed
7. Using Sources
Why Use Sources?
Choosing a Topic
A Word about Wikipedia
Interviewing Peers and Local Authorities
Finding Quality Information on the Web
Finding Articles Using Library Databases
Evaluating Your Sources
A CHECKLIST FOR EVALUATING PRINT SOURCES
A CHECKLIST FOR EVALUATING ELECTRONIC SOURCES
A Note on Plagiarizing, Paraphrasing, and Using Common Knowledge
A CHECKLIST FOR AVOIDING PLAGIARISM
Compiling an Annotated Bibliography
Writing the Paper
Organizing Your Notes
The First Draft
Choosing a Tentative Title
The Final Draft
Quoting from Sources
The Use and Abuse of Quotations
How to Quote
]A CHECKLIST FOR USING QUOTATIONS RATHER THAN SUMMARIES
A Note on Footnotes (and Endnotes)
MLA Format: Citations Within the Text
MLA Format: the List of Works Cited
APA Format: Citations Within the Text
APA Format: the List of References
A CHECKLIST FOR PAPERS USING SOURCES
An Annotated Student Research Paper In MLA Format
Theresa Washington, Why Trials Should Not Be Televised
An Annotated Student Research Paper in APA Format
Laura Deveau, The Role of Spirituality and Religion in Mental Health
PART III. FURTHER VIEWS ON ARGUMENT
8. A Philosopher’s View: The Toulmin Model
A Model Analysis Using the Toulmin Method
A CHECKLIST FOR USING THE TOULMIN METHOD
]Putting the Toulmin Method to Work: Responding to an Argument
]Michael S. Dukakis and Daniel J. B. Mitchell, Raise Wages, Not Walls
]Thinking with Toulmin’s Method
9. A Logician’s View: Deduction, Induction, Fallacies
Observation and Inference
Confirmation, Mechanism, and Theory
]Fallacies of Ambiguity
]Fallacies of Presumption
]Fallacies of Relevance
A CHECKLIST FOR EVALUATING AN ARGUMENT FROM A LOGICAL POINT OF VIEW
Exercise: Fallacies -- or Not?
Max Shulman, Love Is a Fallacy
10. A Moralist’s View: Ways Of Thinking Ethically
Moral Reasoning: a Closer Look
Criteria for Moral Rules
A CHECKLIST FOR MORAL REASONING
Peter Singer, Famine, Affluence, and Morality
Garrett Hardin, Lifeboat Ethics: the Case Against Helping the Poor
Randy Cohen, Three Letters (to an Ethicist)
11. A Lawyer’s View: Steps Toward Civic Literacy
Civil and Criminal Cases
Trial and Appeal
Decision and Opinion
Majority, Concurring, and Dissenting Opinions
Facts and Law
A Word of Caution
A CHECKLIST FOR ANALYZING LEGAL ARGUMENTS
A Casebook on the Law and Society: What Rights Do the Constitution and the Bill of Rights Protect?
William J. Brennan Jr. and William H. Rehnquist, Texas v. Johnson
Byron R. White and John Paul Stevens, New Jersey v. T.L.O.
Harry Blackmun and William H. Rehnquist, Roe v. Wade
12. A Psychologist’s View: Rogerian Argument
Rogerian Argument: an Introduction
Carl R. Rogers, Communication: Its Blocking and Its Facilitation
A CHECKLIST FOR ANALYZING ROGERIAN ARGUMENT
]Jane Willy (Student Essay), Is the College Use of American Indian Mascots Racist?
13. A Literary Critic’s View: Arguing About Literature
Judging (or Evaluating)
A CHECKLIST FOR AN ARGUMENT ABOUT LITERATURE
Examples: Two Students Interpret Robert Frost’s "Mending Wall"
Robert Frost, Mending Wall
Jonathan Deutsch, The Deluded Speaker in Frost’s "Mending Wall"
Felicia Alonso, The Debate in Robert Frost’s "Mending Wall"
Exercises: Reading a Poem and a Story
Andrew Marvell, To His Coy Mistress
Kate Chopin, The Story of an Hour
Thinking About the Effects of Literature
Plato, "The Greater Part of the Stories Current Today We Shall Have to Reject"
Thinking About Government Funding for the Arts
14. A Forensic View: Oral Presentation and Debate
Standard Debate Format
A CHECKLIST FOR PREPARING FOR A DEBATE
PART IV. CURRENT ISSUES: OCCASIONS FOR DEBATE
Debates as an Aid to Thinking
A CHECKLIST FOR ANALYZING A DEBATE
15. Abortion: Whose Right to Life Is It Anyway?
Ellen Willis, Putting Women Back Into the Abortion Debate
Analyzing A Visual: Abortion
Randall A. Terry, The Abortion Clinic Shootings: Why?
16. Affirmative Action: Is It Fair?
Terry Eastland, Ending Affirmative Action
Analyzing a Visual: Affirmative Action
Burke Marshall and Nicholas Deb. Katzenbach, Not Color Blind: Just Blind
17. Gun Control: Would It Really Help?
Sarah Thompson, Concealed Carry Prevents Violent Crimes
Analyzing a Visual: Gun Control
Nan Desuka, Why Handguns Must Be Outlawed
]18. Laptops In the Classroom: May Professors Ban Them?
]Robert McClellan, No Laptops, Please
]Analyzing a Visual: Laptops In the Classroom
]Tina Rosovsky, Why Ban Laptops From the Classroom?
]19. Obesity: Who Is Responsible for Our Weight?
]Radley Balko, Are You Responsible for Your Own Weight? Pro
]Analyzing a Visual: Obesity
]Kelly Brownell and Marion Nestle, Are You Responsible for Your Own Weight? Con
]20. Sex Education: Should Condoms Be Distributed In Schools?
Rush H. Limbaugh. III, Condoms: the New Diploma
]Analyzing a Visual: Sex Education
]Anna Quindlen, A Pyrrhic Victory
PART V. CURRENT ISSUES: CASEBOOKS
]21. A College Education: What Is Its Purpose?
]Stanley Fish, Why We Built the Ivory Tower
]Dave Eggers, Serve or Fail
]Letters of Response By Dixie Dillon, Sharon S. Epstein, and Patricia R. King
]David Brooks, "Moral Suicide," A La Wolfe
]Letters of Response By Scott Bradley, Barry Oshry, Paul Cutrone, and Rebecca Chopp
]Patrick Allitt, Should Undergraduates Specialize?
]Letters of Response By Carol Geary Schneider and Ellis M. West
]Louis Menand, Re-Imagining Liberal Education
22. The Death Penalty: Is It Ever Justified?
Edward I. Koch, Death and Justice: How Capital Punishment Affirms Life
David Bruck, The Death Penalty
]George Ryan, Speech Announcing Commutation of All Illinois Prisoners' Death Sentences
]Gary Wills, The Dramaturgy of Death
Potter Stewart, Gregg v. Georgia
Harry Blackmun, Dissenting Opinion In Callins v. Collins
Helen Prejean, Executions Are Too Costly — Morally
Alex Kozinski and Sean Gallagher, For An Honest Death Penalty
23. Drugs: Should Their Sale and Use Be Legalized?
William J. Bennett, Drug Policy and The Intellectuals
James Q. Wilson, Against the Legalization of Drugs
Milton Friedman, There’s No Justice In the War on Drugs
Elliott Currie, Toward a Policy on Drugs
]24. Immigration: What Is to Be Done?
David Cole, Five Myths About Immigration
]Barry R. Chiswick, The Worker Next Door
]John Tierney, çngels in America
]Victor David Hanson, Our Brave New World of Immigration
]Roger Cardinal Mahony, Called By God To Help
]25. Intelligent Design: Is It Science?
]William A. Dembski, Intelligent Design
]Michael J. Behe, Design for Living
]Letters of Response By Al Grand, Melissa Henriksen, Karen Rosenberg, Jon Sanders, and Bruce Alberts
]Harold Morowitz, Robert Hazen, and James Trefil, Intelligent Design Has No Place In the Science Curriculum
]Letters of Response By L. Russ Bush III, Michael Friedlander, Walter Collins, Michael Blanco, and Judith Shapiro
]Editorial, The New York Times, Intelligent Design Derailed
]Letters of Response By Susan Israel, Robert L. Crowther II, and John Scott
]26. Marriage: What Is Its Future?
Thomas B. Stoddard, Gay Marriages: Make Them Legal
Lisa Schiffren, Gay Marriage, an Oxymoron
]Julie Matthaei, Political Economy and Family Policy
]Ellen Goodman, Backward Logic In the Courts
]Marriage: A Portfolio Of Cartoons
]Diana Medved, The Case Against Divorce
]Elizabeth Joseph, My Husband’s Nine Wives
B. Aisha Lemu, In Defense of Polygamy
27. Sexual Harassment: Is There Any Doubt About What It Is?
Tufts University, What Is Sexual Harassment?
Ellen Goodman, The Reasonable Woman Standard
Ellen Frankel Paul, Bared Buttocks and Federal Cases
Sarah J. McCarthy, Cultural Fascism
28. Testing: What Value Do Tests Have?
Paul Goodman, A Proposal to Abolish Grading
Howard Gardner, Test for Aptitude, Not for Speed
Letters of Response By Thomas M. Johnson Jr., Garver Moore, Arnie Lichten, and Janet Rudolph
Diane Ravitch, In Defense of Testing
]Joy Alonso, Two Cheers for Examinations
]29. Torture: Is It Ever Justifiable?
Philip B. Heymann, Torture Should Not Be Authorized
Alan M. Dershowitz, Yes, It Should Be "On The Books"
Michael Levin, The Case for Torture
]Charles Krauthammer, The Truth About Torture
]Andrew Sullivan, The Abolition of Torture
PART VI. ENDURING QUESTIONS: ESSAYS, A STORY, POEMS, AND A PLAY
30. What Is The Ideal Society?
Thomas More, From Utopia
Niccol˜ Machiavelli, From The Prince
Thomas Jefferson, The Declaration of Independence
Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions
Martin Luther King Jr., I Have a Dream
W. H. Auden, The Unknown Citizen
Langston Hughes, Let America Be America Again
Ursula K. Le Guin, The Ones Who Walk Away From Omelas
31. How Free Is The Will Of The Individual Within Society?
Thoughts About Free Will
George Orwell, Shooting an Elephant
Walter T. Stace, Is Determinism Inconsistent With Free Will?
Martin Luther King Jr., Letter from Birmingham Jail
Stanley Milgram, The Perils of Obedience
Thomas Hardy, The Man He Killed
T. S. Eliot, The Love Song Of J. Alfred Prufrock
Susan Glaspell, Trifles
Mitsuye Yamada, To the Lady
32. What Is Happiness?
Thoughts About Happiness, Ancient and Modern
]Darrin M. Mcmahon, In Pursuit of Unhappiness
Epictetus, From The Handbook
Bertrand Russell, The Happy Life
The Dalai Lama and Howard C. Cutler, Inner Contentment
C. S. Lewis, We Have No "Right to Happiness"
Danielle Crittenden, About Love
Judy Brady, I Want a Wife
Index of Authors and Titles
Index of Terms
] new to this edition