Few branches of the biological sciences have developed to such an extent as has ecology in the recent decades. The successful development of this science is directly related to need to create a sound scientific basis by which we can control our diminishing natural resources and integrate this with the control of biological systems of the component species. Studies on the bioenergetics of ecosystems, as well as on the home ostatic mechanisms functioning at the populations and biocenoses levels are of great importance in this respect. The results of these studies are very significant in forestry management which deals with multiannual tree communities - forest stands. It is particularly important in this of the necessity for the possible respect for economic planning, in view prolonged maintenance of forest biocenoses as stable systems. Neither in the present nor in the immediate future can be protection of forest ecosystems consisting of natural plant and animal communities be achieved by the cultivation of resistant forms or the intensification of chemical intervention.
Table of Contents1. Species and Populations of Insects and their Basic Associations with the Forest Environment.- 2. Influence of Abiotic Environmental Factors On Forest Insects.- Influence of solar radiation and atmospheric factors.- 2.1. Light.- 2.1.1. Influence of light on bchaviour.- 2.1.2. Influence of light on reproduction and development.- 2.2. Temperature.- 2.2.1. Regulation of body temperature.- 2.2.2. Thermal tolerance.- 2.2.3. Influence of temperature on activity and orientation.- 2.2.4. Influence of infra-red radiation on behaviour and orientation.- 2.2.5. Dependence of growth and development on temperature.- 2.3. Humidity and precipitation.- 2.3.1. Water in the insect body.- 2.3.2. Tolerance and adaptation.- 2.3.3. Activity, orientation and preference phenomena.- 2.3.4. Influence of humidity on reproduction and development.- 2.3.5. Precipitation.- 2.4. Air, atmospheric pressure and wind.- 2.5. Integrated action of climatic factors.- 2.5.1. Climograms, bioclimograms and hygrothermic coefficient.- 2.5.2. Influence of the forest mesoclimate on the distribution of insects.- Influence of soil factors on insects.- 2.6. General characteristics of soil insects.- 2.7. Insects and physical soil properties.- 2.7.1. Structure and mechanical composition.- 2.7.2. Humidity.- 2.7.3. Thermal conditions.- 2.7.4. Light.- 2.7.5. Soil air.- 2.7.6. Humus content.- 2.8. Influence of chemical properties of the soil.- 3. The Role of Nutrient Factors in the Life of Forest Insects.- 3.1. General characteristics of trophic relationships.- 3.2. Nutrient relationships of phytophages.- 3.2.1. Nutrient specialization.- 3.2.2. Selection of the host plant.- 3.2.3. Food value.- 3.2.4. Influence of food on reproduction and development.- 3.2.5. Influence of the physiological condition of the host plant.- 3.3. Feeding relationships among zoophages.- 3.3.1. Predators.- 3.3.2. Parasites.- 3.4. Characteristics of saprophages.- 4. Intraspecific Relationships of Forest Insects.- Integration of populations.- 4.1. Sexual life and protection of progeny.- 4.2. Collective life of insects.- Structure and function of the population.- 4.3. Abundance and density.- 4.4. Spatial distribution.- 4.5. Age distribution.- 4.6. Sex structure.- 4.7. Reproductive potential.- 4.8. Mortality.- Population dynamics.- 4.9. Level of abundance and its variation.- 4.10. Coefficient r and curves of population increase.- 4.10.1. Oscillations.- 4.10.2. Fluctuations and outbreaks (gradations).- 4.11. Phasic character and spread of outbreaks (gradations).- 5. Causes and Course of Changes in the Abundance Of Insect Populations.- Development of opinions on the causes of changes in abundance.- 5.1. Concepts not accepting the notion of automatic regulation of the abundance of populations.- 5.1.1. Concept of the decisive importance of one factor.- 5.1.2. Concept of the complex influence of the components of the ecosystem.- 5.2. Concepts based on the automatic regulation of population size.- 5.2.1. Concepts of self-regulation with respect to the decisive role of parasites and of overcrowding.- 5.2.2. Concept of the automatic regulation of abundance.- 5.2.3. Facts justifying the concept of the automatic regulation of abundance.- 5.2.4. Milne’s integrating concept.- 5.2.5. Concept based on the influence of genetic mechanisms.- 5.2.6. Concept of modifying and regulating factors.- Factors determining the course of changes in abundance.- 5.3. Undirectionally acting (random) factors.- 5.3.1. Direct influence of meteorological conditions.- 5.3.2. Indirect influence of meteorological conditions.- 5.3.3. Cyclic character of culmination of outbreak phenomena.- 5.4. Factors acting (regulating) according to the rule of feedback.- 5.4.1. Types of mechanisms regulating abundance.- 5.4.2. Intraspecific regulating mechanisms.- 5.4.3. Biocenotic regulating mechanisms.- 5.4.4. Mechanism of genetic feedback.- 6. Insects in Forest Biocenoses.- Entomocenoses, associations and communities of insects.- 6.1. Descriptive characteristics of associations and communities.- 6.1.1. Characteristics of quantitative proportions.- 6.1.2. Characteristics of the structure of associations and communities.- 6.2. Methods of comparison of cenos:s and communities.- Insects in the spatial and time structure of forest biocenoses.- 6.3. Spatial differentiation.- 6.3.1. Insect communities in various forest habitat types.- 6.3.2. Insects in the layers structure of the forest.- 6.4. Differentiation in time.- 6.4.1. Diurnal rhythm of activity.- 6.4.2. Seasonal rhythm of activity.- 6.4.3. Changes in insect communities occurring with the growth of forest stands.- Insects in the functioning of forest biocenoses.- 6.5. Biotic associations of forest insects.- 6.6. Contribution of insects to the flow of energy in the ecosystem.- 6.6.1. Energy budget of insects.- 6.6.2. The role of phytophagous insects in the productivity of forest ecosystems.- 6.6.3. The role of saprophagous soil insects.- 6.7. Succession of insect associations and communities.- 7. Characteristics of the Forest Entomofauna Of Poland.- 7.1. History of the forest entomofauna of Poland.- 7.2. Problems of regionalization.- 7.3. Characteristics of the entomofauna of Polish forests.- 8. Human Influence on Forest Entomocenoses.- General regularities of the processes of anthropization of the forest entomofauna.- Influence of antropogenous factors not associated with forest management on the entomocenosis.- 8.1. Changes in soil water conditions.- 8.2. Destruction of the forest herb layer and litter.- 8.3. Forest fires.- 8.4. Industrial air pollution and its accumulation in the soil.- 8.5. Mining.- Influence of forest management on the entomofauna.- 8.6. Specific composition of the forest stand.- 8.7. Cutting systems and improvement fellings.- 8.8. Mechanical soil cultivation.- 8.9. Fertilization and lupin manuring of forest soils.- 9. Problems of the Development of Entomocenoses Under Reforestation Conditions.- 9.1. Waste-heaps and dumping grounds.- 9.2. Areas poisoned by industrial air pollution.- 9.3. Dune areas.- 9.4. Afforested old farmland.- References.- Index of latin names of Invertebrata.