Pub. Date:
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Environmental Signal Processing and Adaptation / Edition 1

Environmental Signal Processing and Adaptation / Edition 1

by Gerhard Heldmaier, Dietrich Werner


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Animals and plants live in changing environmental conditions which require adaptation in order to cope with this. Some of these environmental changes serve as signals which have to be "sensed" and interpreted correctly by the organisms to initiate the adaptation. This signal processing is based on biochemical, molecular and neuronal processes which are discussed in this book. All examples given underline that continuous adjustment of physiological functions is an essential requirement for life and survival in complex changing environments.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9783540437949
Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Publication date: 10/03/2002
Edition description: 2003
Pages: 287
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 9.25(h) x 0.03(d)

Table of Contents

1 Environmental Signal Processing and Adaptation.- 1.1 Introduction.- 1.2 Acclimation and Adaptation.- 1.3 Biological and Physical Signals for Plants.- 1.4 Symbiontic Signal Exchange.- 1.5 Light Adaptation in Plants.- 1.6 Thioredoxins.- 1.7 Vibratory Signal Processing in Insects.- 1.8 Seasonal Acclimation in Small Mammals.- 1.9 Signal Processing.- 1.10 References.- 2 Communication and Efficiency in the Symbiotic Signal Exchange.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 Flavonoids and Isoflavonoids as Signal Molecules from Host Plants.- 2.3 Nod Factors as Signal Molecules from Rhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, Sinorhizobium and Mesorhizobium.- 2.4 Communication and Signal Exchange Between Host Plants and Symbionts: a Summary.- 2.5 Induction of Early nod Genes in the Plants by Inoculation with Rhizobia/Bradyrhizobia.- 2.6 Symbiosis Specific Differentiation of Free-Living Rhizobium/Bradyrhizobium Cells to Bacteroids.- 2.7 Nodule Compartmentation and Induction of Late Nodulines During Nodule Development.- 2.8 Essential Functions of Late Nodulins for Nodule Metabolism.- 2.9 Signal Molecules for the Induction of Late Nodulins.- 2.10 Signals and the Regulation of Nodule Senescence.- 2.11 N2-Fixation and Denitrification Under Field Conditions.- 2.12 References.- 3 Rhizosphere Signals and Ecochemistry.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 The Nature of Rhizosphere Signals.- 3.2.1 Plant Signal Molecules.- 3.2.2 Bacterial Signals to Plants.- 3.2.3 Antibiotics.- 3.3 New Concepts in Rhizosphere Signals.- 3.3.1 Biotin.- 3.3.2 Respiratory Elicitors.- 3.3.3 Nucleosides.- 3.4 Integration of Signals into Rhizosphere Communities.- 3.4.1 Positional Effects.- 3.4.2 Environmental Effects.- 3.4.3 Inactivation of Signals.- 3.5 Summary.- 3.6 References.- 4 Endomycorrhizas in the Gentianales: Structures and Evolution of the Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (VAM).- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Classification of the Gentianales.- 4.3 Root System, Roots, and Mycorrhizal Structures in the Gentianales.- 4.3.1 Root Infection by VAM Fungi.- 4.3.2 Colonization of the Root Cortex.- 4.4 Paris Type: Structural Incompatibility of the Arum Type.- 4.5 VAM Structures as a Characteristic for Systematics.- 4.6 The Advanced Paris Type Represents a Progressive Evolutionary Step in VAM.- 4.7 Summary.- 4.8 References.- 5 Light Adaptation of the Photosynthetic Apparatus of Green Algae.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 Changes in the Photosynthetic Apparatus During Adaptation to Different Light Intensities and Wavelengths.- 5.3 Adaptation Phenomena of Other Green Algae and of Aquatic Higher Plants.- 5.4 Carotenoids and Photosynthetic Adaptation.- 5.5 Regulation of the cab-Gene Expression by Light of Different Intensities and Wavelengths.- 5.6 Photoreceptors.- 5.7 Photoprotection by Nonphotochemical Chlorophyll Fluorescence Quenching.- 5.8 Adaptation of the Photosynthetic Apparatus of Cyanobacteria to Light Intensity and CO2 Concentration.- 5.9 References.- 6 Light-Harvesting Systems in the Photosynthetic Apparatus of Cyanobacteria, Red Algae and Cryptophytes.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 Light Harvesting in the Photosynthetic Apparatus of Cyanobacteria and Red Algae.- 6.2.1 Structure of Hemidiskoidal and Hemiellipsoidal Phycobilisomes.- 6.2.2 Chromophores and Excitation Energy Transfer.- 6.2.3 Phycobilisomes as Dynamic Structures.- 6.3 Light Harvesting in the Chloroplasts of Cryptophytes.- 6.3.1 Origin of Genetic Complexity in Cryptophytes.- 6.3.2 Phycobiliprotein Antennae in Cryptophytes.- 6.3.3 Cooperation of Two Antennae Systems in Cryptophytes.- 6.4 References.- 7 Thioredoxins: Adapting Plant Metabolism to Light and Other Environmental Signals.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 Complete thioredoxin profiles in plant cells.- 7.3 Thioredoxin-Dependent Enzymes.- 7.4 The Signaling Mechanism and its Physiological Logic.- 7.5 Environmental Disturbance of Thioredoxin Action.- 7.6 Experimentation Pitfalls in Vitro.- 7.7 Thioredoxin Control of Plant Metabolism: A Unified View.- 7.8 References.- 8 Photoinhibition in Seaweeds.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.2 Photoinhibition of Photosynthesis and Its Recovery.- 8.3 Occurrence of Photoinhibition in the Natural Environment.- 8.4 Photoinhibition Affects Zonation of the Algae on the Shore.- 8.5 Temperature Dependence of Photoinhibition and Recovery.- 8.6 Correlation Between Oxygen Production Rate and Fluorescence.- 8.7 Possible Molecular Mechanisms of Photoinhibition and Recovery in Seaweeds.- 8.8 The Influence of UV Radiation on Photosynthesis of Arctic Macroalgae.- 8.9 Conclusion.- 8.10 References.- 9 The Auditory-Vibratory Sensory System in Bushcrickets (Tettigoniidae, Ensifera, Orthoptera) I Comparison of Morphology, Development and Physiology.- 9.1 Introduction.- 9.2 The Receptor Organs.- 9.2.1 Location and Morphology.- 9.2.2 Larval and Phylogenetic Development.- 9.2.3 Stimulus Transduction in the Receptor Organs.- 9.2.4 Frequency Tuning of the Receptor Cells.- 9.3 Projection of the Receptor Cells at the Ventral Nerve Cord Level.- 9.4 The Auditory-Vibratory Sensory System in the Ventral Nerve Cord.- 9.5 References.- 10 The Auditory-Vibratory Sensory System in Bushcrickets (Tettigoniidae, Ensifera, Orthoptera) II. Signal Production and Acoustic Behavior.- 10.1 Introduction.- 10.1.1 Signal Production.- 10.1.2 Signal Transmission in the Biotope.- 10.1.3 Broadcasting and Acoustic behavior.- 10.2 Results.- 10.2.1 Combined “Resonant” and “Nonresonant” Sound Production in Tettigoniids.- 10.2.2 The Role of Subtegminal Air Volume During Sound Production in Tettigoniids.- 10.2.3 Acoustic Behavior and Species Discrimination in Tettigoniids.- 10.2.4 Chirp Rate Variability.- 10.2.5 Reactions of Tettigonia viridissima Larvae to Sound and Vibration.- 10.3 References.- 11 Mechanisms for Seasonal Control of Reproduction in Small Mammals.- 11.1 Why Seasonal Reproduction?.- 11.2 Mechanism of Seasonal Control.- 11.2.1 Circannual Rhythms.- 11.2.2 Sequence of Stages as a Basis for Seasonal Reproduction.- 11.2.3 Environmental Signals as Triggers for Seasonal Reproduction.- 11.2.4 Pros and Cons of Different Strategies.- 11.3 Transduction of Daylength Information into an Endogenous Signal.- 11.4 Lack of Photoperiodic Response in “Photoperiodic Species”: Nonresponders.- 11.5 References.- 12 Role of Photoperiod During Seasonal Acclimation in Winter-Active Small Mammals.- 12.1 Introduction.- 12.2 Body Mass and Fur Insulation.- 12.3 Burrowing and Nest Building Activity.- 12.4 Daily Torpor.- 12.5 Seasonal Reduction of Energy Requirements.- 12.6 Cold Tolerance.- 12.7 Thermogenic Acclimation.- 12.8 Seasonal Control of Thermogenesis.- 12.9 Neural and Endocrine Processing of Environmental Signals.- 12.10 References.

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