ISBN-10:
0312436262
ISBN-13:
9780312436261
Pub. Date:
11/28/2004
Publisher:
Bedford/St. Martin's
From Critical Thinking to Argument: A Portable Guide / Edition 1

From Critical Thinking to Argument: A Portable Guide / Edition 1

by Sylvan Barnet, Hugo Bedau

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Overview

From Critical Thinking to Argument is a brief but thorough guide to argument at a great value. This versatile text gives students strategies for critical thinking, reading, and writing and makes argument concepts clear through its treatment of classic and modern approaches to argument, including Aristotelian, Toulmin, and Rogerian argument, as well as visual rhetoric. For today’s increasingly visual learners who are challenged to separate what’s real from what’s not, new activities and visual flowcharts support information literacy, and an appendix of practical Sentence Guides helps students incorporate the moves of academic writers into their own arguments. With just eighteen readings, this affordable guide can stand alone or complement an anthology.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780312436261
Publisher: Bedford/St. Martin's
Publication date: 11/28/2004
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 288
Product dimensions: 5.40(w) x 8.10(h) x 0.50(d)

About the Author

Sylvan Barnet, professor of English and former director of writing at Tufts University, is the most prolific and consistently successful college English textbook author in the country. His several texts on writing and his numerous anthologies for introductory composition and literature courses have remained leaders in their field through many editions.

Hugo Bedau, professor of philosophy at Tufts University, has served as chair of the philosophy department and chair of the university’s committee on College Writing. An internationally respected expert on the death penalty, and on moral, legal, and political philosophy, he has written or edited a number of books on these topics. He is the author of Thinking and Writing about Philosophy, Second Edition (Bedford/St. Martin’s).

Table of Contents

PART ONE: FROM CRITICAL THINKING TO ARGUMENT AND RESEARCH

1 Critical Thinking
Thinking through an Issue
Analyzing and Evaluating from Multiple Perspectives
Survey, Analyze, and Evaluate the Issue
Visual Guide: Evaluating a Proposal
Obstacles to Critical Thinking
Anticipating Counterarguments
Critical Thinking at Work: From a Cluster to a Short Essay
ALEXA CABRERA, Stirred and Strained: Pastafarians Should Be Allowed to Practice in Prison (student essay)
Generating Ideas: Writing as a Way of Thinking
Confronting Unfamiliar Issues
Using Clustering to Discover Ideas
Approaching an Issue (or an Assignment)
Prompting Yourself: Classical Topics and Invention
An Essay for Generating Ideas
NINA FEDOROFF, The Genetically Engineered Salmon Is a Boon for Consumers and Sustainability
Thinking Critically: Generating Ideas with Topics
Thinking Critically about the Issue
A Checklist for Critical Thinking
A Short Essay Calling for Critical Thinking
LYNN STUART PARRAMORE, Fitbits for Bosses
Examining Assumptions
A Checklist for Examining Assumptions
*HELEN BENEDICT, The Military Has a Man Problem

2 Critical Reading: Getting Started
Active Reading
Previewing
A Short Essay for Previewing Practice
Thinking Critically: Previewing
SANJAY GUPTA, Why I Changed My Mind on Weed
Reading with a Careful Eye: Underlining, Highlighting, Annotating
Reading: Fast and Slow
Defining Terms and Concepts
Summarizing and Paraphrasing
A Checklist for a Paraphrase
Patchwriting and Plagiarism
Strategies for Summarizing
Critical Summary
Visual Guide: Writing a Critical Summary
A Short Essay for Summarizing Practice
SUSAN JACOBY, A First Amendment Junkie
A Checklist for a Summary
Essays for Analysis
GWEN WILDE, Why the Pledge of Allegiance Should Be Revised (student essay)
ZACHARY SHEMTOB and DAVID LAT, Executions Should Be Televised

3 Critical Reading: Getting Deeper into Arguments
Persuasion, Argument, and Rhetorical Appeals
Visual Guide: Evaluating Persuasive Appeals
Thinking Critically: Identifying Ethos
Reason, Rationalization, and Confirmation Bias
Types of Reasoning
Induction
Deduction
Premises and Syllogisms
Some Procedures in Argument
Definitions
Assumptions
Evidence: Experimentation, Examples, Authoritative Testimony, and Numerical Data
Thinking Critically: Authoritative Testimony
A Checklist for Evaluating Statistical Evidence
Nonrational Appeals
Satire, Irony, Sarcasm
Emotional Appeals
Thinking Critically: Nonrational Appeals
Does All Writing Contain Arguments?
A Checklist for Analyzing an Argument
An Example: An Argument and a Look at the Writer’s Strategies
*JOHN TIERNEY, The Reign of Recycling (annotated essay)

4 Visual Rhetoric: Thinking about Images as Arguments
Uses of Visual Images
Types of Emotional Appeals
Seeing versus Looking: Reading Advertisements
A Checklist for Analyzing Images
Levels of Images
Visual Guide: Analyzing Images
Documenting Reality: Reading Photographs
A Word on “Alternative Facts”
Accommodating, Resisting, and Negotiating the Meaning of Images
Are Some Images Not Fit to Be Shown?: Politics and Pictures
An Argument on Publishing Images
Writing about Political Cartoons
Thinking Critically: Analysis of a Political Cartoon
A Checklist for Analyzing Political Cartoons
An Example: A Student’s Essay Analyzing Images
*RYAN KWON, The American Pipe Dream? (student essay)
Visuals as Aids to Clarity: Maps, Graphs, and Pie Charts
A Word on Misleading or Manipulative Visual Data
A Checklist for Charts and Graphs
Using Visuals in Your Own Paper

5 Writing an Analysis of an Argument
Analyzing an Argument
Examining The Author’s Thesis
Examining The Author’s Purpose
Examining The Author’s Methods
Examining The Author’s Persona
Examining The Author’s Audience
A Checklist for Analyzing an Author’s Intended Audience
Organizing Your Analysis
Visual Guide: Organizing Your Analysis
Summary versus Analysis
A Checklist for Analyzing a Text
An Argument, Its Elements, And a Student’s Analysis of the Argument
NICHOLAS D. KRISTOF, For Environmental Balance, Pick Up a Rifle
Thinking Critically: Examining Language to Analyze an Author’s Argument
The Essay Analyzed
*THERESA CARCALDI, For Sound Argument, Drop The Jokes: How Kristof Falls Short in Convincing His Audience (student essay)?
An Analysis of the Student’s Analysis
A Checklist for Writing an Analysis of an Argument

6 Developing an Argument of Your Own
Planning an Argument
Getting Ideas: Argument as an Instrument of Inquiry
Three Brainstorming Strategies: Freewriting, Listing, and Diagramming
Revision as Invention
Asking Questions with Stasis Theory
Considering Evidence
The Thesis or Main Point
A Checklist for a Thesis Statement
Thinking Critically: Walking the Tightrope
Imagining an Audience
The Audience as Collaborator
Addressing Opposition and Establishing Common Ground
A Checklist for Imagining an Audience
Drafting and Revising Argument
The Title
The Opening Paragraphs
Organizing the Body of the Essay
Visual Guide: Organizing Your Argument
The Ending
Thinking Critically: Using Transitions in Argument
Uses of an Outline
A Checklist for Organizing an Argument
Tone and the Writer’s Persona
We, One, or I?
Thinking Critically: Eliminating We, One, and I
A Checklist for Establishing Tone and Persona
Avoiding Sexist Language
Peer Review
A Checklist for Peer Review
A Student’s Essay, from Rough Notes to Final Version
EMILY ANDREWS, Why I Don’t Spare Change (student essay)

7 Using Sources
Why Use Sources?
Entering a Discourse
Understanding Information Literacy
Choosing a Topic
Finding Sources
Visual Guide: Finding Discourse on Your Topic
Finding Quality Information Online
Finding Articles Using Library Databases
Thinking Critically: Using Search Terms
Locating Books
Evaluating Sources
Scholarly, Popular, and Trade Sources
Evaluating Online Sources
Why Finding Reliable Internet Sources Is So Challenging
A Word on “Fake News”
A Checklist for Identifying Fake News
Native Advertising and Branded Content
Considering How Current Sources Are
A Checklist for Evaluating Sources
Performing Your Own Primary Research
Interviewing Peers and Local Authorities
Visual Guide: Conducting Interviews
Conducting Observations
Conducting Surveys
Research in Archives and Special Collections
Synthesizing Sources
Taking Notes
A Note on Plagiarizing
A Checklist for Avoiding Plagiarism
Compiling an Annotated Bibliography
Quoting from Sources
Visual Guide: Integrating Quotations
Thinking Critically: Using Signal Phrases
Documentation
A Note on Footnotes (and Endnotes)
MLA Format: Citations within the Text
MLA Format: The List of Works Cited
APA Format: Citations within the Text
APA Format: The List of References
A Checklist for Critical Papers Using Sources
An Annotated Student Research Paper in MLA Format
LESLEY TIMMERMAN, An Argument for Corporate Responsibility (student essay)
An Annotated Student Research Paper in APA Format
*HANNAH SMITH BROOKS, Does Ability Determine Expertise? (student essay)

Part Two FURTHER VIEWS ON ARGUMENT

8 A Philosopher’s View: The Toulmin Model
Visual Guide: The Toulmin Method
Components of the Toulmin Model
The Claim
Grounds
Warrants
Backing
Modal Qualifiers
Rebuttals
Thinking Critically: Constructing a Toulmin Argument
Putting the Toulmin Method to Work: Responding to an Argument
JAMES E. McWILLIAMS, The Locavore Myth: Why Buying from Nearby Farmers Won’t Save the Planet
Thinking with Toulmin’s Method
A Checklist Using the Toulmin Method

9 A Logician’s View: Deduction, Induction, and Fallacies
Using Formal Logic for Critical Thinking
Visual Guide: Deduction and Induction
Deduction
Examples of Deduction
Induction
Observation and Inference
Probability
Mill’s Methods
Fallacies
Fallacies of Ambiguity
Fallacies of Presumption
Fallacies of Irrelevance
Additional Fallacies
A Checklist for Evaluating an Argument from a Logical Point of View
Thinking Critically: Identifying Fallacies
MAX SHULMAN, Love Is a Fallacy

10 A Psychologist’s View: Rogerian Argument
Rogerian Argument: An Introduction
Visual Guide: Rogerian Argument
A Checklist for Analyzing Rogerian Argument
CARL R. ROGERS, Communication: Its Blocking and Its Facilitation
EDWARD O. WILSON, Letter to a Southern Baptist Minister

Appendix: Sentence Guides for Academic Writers

Index

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