Gender Equity in Junior and Senior Secondary Education in Sub-Saharan Africa

Gender Equity in Junior and Senior Secondary Education in Sub-Saharan Africa

by World Bank

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Evidence of gender inequity and inequality in terms of access, retention and performance in secondary education in Sub-Saharan Africa raises many questions. While transition rates from primary to secondary are higher for girls than boys, and the repetition rates are lower, girls still significantly trail behind boys in terms of secondary GER. This study documents and analyzes the extent and nature of gender disadvantage in junior and senior secondary education. It analyzes the causes of this disadvantage and identifies strategies that may be effective in reducing or eliminating it.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780821375068
Publisher: World Bank Publications
Publication date: 07/03/2008
Series: World Bank Working Papers Series
Sold by: Barnes & Noble
Format: NOOK Book
Pages: 88
File size: 544 KB

Table of Contents

Foreword     vii
Acknowledgments     ix
Abbreviations and Acronyms     xi
Executive Summary     xiii
Resume Analytique     xix
Introduction     1
Objectives of the Study     1
Scope and Content     1
Constraints of the Study     2
The Global and Regional Context     2
The Essence of Adolescence     4
Participation in Secondary Education in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Global Picture     7
EFA and Secondary Education     7
Definition of Terms     8
Gender Equity and Education     8
Secondary Education in SSA     9
Primary Completion and the Transition to Lower Secondary Education     10
Gender Disparity in Secondary Education: A Widening Gap     11
Factors Affecting the Participation of Girls in Secondary Education     21
Economic Policies, Growth, and Development     21
Equity, Financial Measures, and Good Governance     23
Making Girls' Schooling Affordable: The Impact of Fees     25
The Bottleneck Effect     26
The School Environment     27
Sociocultural Barriers     31
Violence against Girls     35
The Unreached     36
Summary of Factors     36
Promotion of Female Participation in Secondary Education     37
Two Policy Challenges     37
State Policy and the Promotion of Female Participation in Secondary Education     40
Institutions Addressing the Issue of Secondary Education     47
CAMFED     47
The Role of Civil Society: The FAWE Approach     49
FAWE Centres of Excellence: Making the Case for the Holistic Approach     50
Challenges of the COE Concept     54
Concluding Observations     57
Quality Factor     57
Importance of Intersectoral Approaches     57
Involvement of Students     58
Expanding Opportunities     58
Taking Best Practices to Scale     59
References     61
List of Tables
GER at Junior Secondary School Level in Senegal, 2000     11
Trends in Basic or Proxy Indicators to Measure EFA Goals 4 and 5     12
Share of Children 15-19 Who Have Completed Primary School, by Gender (percent)     18
General Performance in Mathematics in Tanzania, 2000     28
Subject Enrollment for the Malawi Secondary School Leaving Examination, by Gender     28
Reasons for the Low Participation of Girls in Science, Maths, and Technological Subjects in Ghana     29
National Open Apprenticeship Scheme, Edo State, Nigeria     30
Manazini Industrial Training Center Enrollment, 1990/91, Swaziland     30
Final Baccalauréate (Senior High School) Results in TVE in Burkina Faso (1992)     32
Details of Performance by Subject Area-High School Results in TVE in Burkina Faso (1992)     33
Factors Affecting Disparities in Secondary Education     35
A Summary of Obstacles and Possible Strategies for Overcoming Them     38
A National Vision for Girls' Education in Ghana: Gender Targets Set by the Girls' Education Unit, 2001     40
Female Participation Rates at Various Level of Education: 1998/90-2000/01     42
MOE/GEU Interventions in Girls' Education     43
Gender Activities by Development Partners     44
FAWE Pilot Centres of Excellence at a Glance     53
Costs of the Centres of Excellence     55
List of Boxes
Summary of Factors Affecting Disparities in Secondary Education     xv
EFA and MDG Goals Related to Secondary Education for Girls     3

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