Green Construction is a specialized and skilled profession, and the author has extensive experience in this field. With this in mind, the reference is designed to provide practical guidelines and essential insights in preparing competent and professional looking ?Project Analysis Reports? and ?Project Status Reports?. The book also provides numerous tips on how to phrase the language of reports in a manner that is articulate and clearly understood by Real Estate Lenders and investors, as well as being an indispensable companion for both information and stimulus. Written in a conversational manner, this book will clarify the nuts and bolts of green construction, finance, and cost monitoring? as a profession, and will outline the many attributes required to being successful in this field. Moreover, it will scrutinize the mechanics of organizing monthly meetings, contractor payment certifications, budgets, change orders, construction schedules, code compliance, waivers of lean, and much more.
Drawing on over 30 years of personal experience across the world - both as an employee and as an employer, the reader will learn how to plan and implement sound business strategies and form alliances in a global context. The book also offers important information and penetrating insights into the process of setting up and working as a due-diligence consultant. In a clear, practical style, it will be explained how to identify opportunities for business development and how to maximize return. It will also articulate how to meet new challenges as well as avoid many of the pitfalls along the way.
For the individual professional, this guide provides useful information and tips to help secure a high paying professional position. The book will include amongst other things, up-to-date information on hundreds of useful contacts. Topics covered in this guide include: types of services offered, the consultant's role on the construction loan team, what the lender needs to know, and marketing techniques. The guide will also include a comprehensive appendix that will contain numerous sample letters (e.g. for marketing and certification), building loan agreements, AIA forms, lender/consultant agreement, closeout documents and much more. Likewise included will be an extensive list of useful references from a variety of resources, and much more. Indeed, this handbook will be the most detailed&comprehensive program on the market. It meets all the criteria of a major work and will provide vital and absorbing reading.
- Provides a detailed blueprint of how to conduct monthly meetings, investigations, understand typical client/consultant agreements, analyze contractor requisitions
- Includes sample letters, reports, forms and agreements for easy reference
- Practical guidelines for preparing Property Analysis and Property Status Reports
- Includes a glossary of important terms, abbreviations and acronyms
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GREEN CONSTRUCTION PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND COST OVERSIGHT
By Sam Kubba
Architectural PressCopyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc.
All right reserved.
Chapter One"Green" and "Sustainability" Defined
1.1 General—Overview of the Green Building Movement 1
1.2 What is Green Design? Basic Green Concepts 4
1.3 Establishing Measurable Green Criteria 7
1.4 Benefits of Going Green—Incentives and Barriers 13 1.4.1 Incentives and Tax Deductions 14 1.4.2 Green Building Programs 15 1.4.3 Defining Sustainable Communities 16
1.5 Emerging Directions—A Recent Upsurge in Green Building 17
1.1 GENERAL—OVERVIEW OF THE GREEN BUILDING MOVEMENT
Enormous changes have taken place in the construction industry and the architectural/engineering professions over the last decade in the promotion of environmentally responsible buildings. Indeed, the green movement has invaded almost all areas of our society, including the construction and home-building industries. But "green" means more than just recycling empty bottles and cans and taking public transportation to work. With respect to building green and sustainability, the emphasis should be on designing and erecting buildings that are more energy efficient, use natural or reclaimed materials in their construction, and are more in harmony with the environments in which they exist. Sustainable buildings are more efficient in their use of valuable resources such as energy, water, materials, and land than conventional buildings or buildings that are simply built to code. Green buildings are therefore kinder to the environment, and provide indoor spaces that are typically more healthy, comfortable, and productive.
Buildings have become an area of focus for green investment dollars largely because they are primary contributors to impacting the environment. Studies show that buildings are the world's heaviest consumers of natural resources, which is why many architects, engineers, contractors, and builders today have started to reevaluate how residential and commercial buildings are being built. Moreover, various incentive programs are now in place that encourage and sometimes stipulate that developers and federal agencies go green—both nationally and internationally. But while sustainable or green building is a strategy for creating healthier and more energy efficient eco-friendly buildings, recent research and experience clearly shows that buildings designed and operated with their life-cycle impacts in mind most often provide substantially greater environmental, economic, and social benefits. Additionally, incorporating green strategies and materials during the early design phase is an outstanding approach to increase a project's potential market value. This strongly suggests that to succeed, the green-building process requires the implementation of an integrated approach to building design and construction.
In fact, an integrated approach to green building is pivotal to a project's success, which means that all aspects of a project, from the site selection to the structure, to interior finishes, are all carefully considered. Focusing on only one aspect of a building can have a profoundly adverse impact on the project as a whole. For example, continuing research has shown that designing an inefficient building envelope can adversely impact indoor environmental quality as well as increase energy costs, whereas a sustainable development can help lower operating costs over the life of a building by increasing productivity and utilizing less energy and water. Sustainable developments can also provide tenants and occupants with a healthier and more productive working environment as a result of improved indoor air quality. Similarly, exposure to materials like asbestos, lead, and formaldehydes which may have high volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions in a building can precipitate significant health problems because of poor indoor air quality and may create what is known as Sick Building Syndrome (SBS).
The objectives of those who engage in green building are usually to achieve both ecological and aesthetic harmony between a structure and its surrounding environment. The exterior appearance and style of sustainable buildings is not always immediately distinguishable from their more conventional counterparts that are built to code. As mentioned earlier, buildings can have an enormous impact on the environment—both during the construction phase and through their operation and maintenance. Moreover, according to Rob Watson, author of the Green Building Impact Report issued in November 2008, "The construction and operation of buildings require more energy than any other human activity. The International Energy Agency (IEA) estimated in 2006 that buildings used 40 percent of primary energy consumed globally, accounting for roughly a quarter of the world's greenhouse gas emissions (Figure 1.1). Commercial buildings comprise one-third of this total. Urbanization trends in developing countries are accelerating the growth of this sector relative to residential buildings, according to the World Business Council on Sustainable Development (WBCSD)." Buildings also account for an estimated 71 percent of all electricity consumed in America and 40 percent of global carbon dioxide emissions.
The utilization of sustainable/green building strategies and practices offer a unique opportunity to create environmentally sound and resource-efficient buildings. Employing an integrated design approach can achieve this by having the stakeholders—architects, engineers, land planners, building owners and operators, as well as members of the construction industry collaborate as a team to design the project.
Leading the green building assault is the federal government which is the nation's largest single landlord. In this regard the General Services Administration recently announced that it will be applying stringent green-building standards to its $12 billion construction portfolio of post offices, courthouses, border stations, and other buildings.
The CEO and founding chairman of the U.S. Green Building Council, Richard Fedrizzi, clearly echoed this when he said, "The federal government has been at the forefront of the sustainable building movement since its inception, providing resources, pioneering best practices, and engaging multiple federal agencies in the mission of transforming the built environment." The first-ever White House Summit on Federal Sustainable Buildings conference was held January 24-25, 2006, in which over 150 federal facility managers and decision makers attended and 21 government agencies participated in formulating and witnessed the signing of the Federal Leadership in High Performance and Sustainable Buildings Memorandum of Understanding (MOU). Signatory agencies to this MOU commit to federal leadership in the design, construction, and operation of high-performance and sustainable buildings. Moreover, the MOU represents a significant achievement by the federal government through its cumulative effort to define common strategies and guiding principles of green building. The signatory agencies will need to coordinate their efforts with others in the private and public sectors if these goals are to be achieved. More importantly, the narrowing gap between green and conventional construction is a sign that green construction is coming of age.
1.2 WHAT IS GREEN DESIGN? BASIC GREEN CONCEPTS
The term "green building" is relatively new to our language and a precise definition is elusive. The EPA for example defines it as, "the practice of creating structures and using processes that are environmentally responsible and resource-efficient throughout a building's life-cycle from siting to design, construction, operation, maintenance, renovation and deconstruction. This practice expands and complements the classical building design concerns of economy, utility, durability, and comfort. Green building is also known as a sustainable or high performance building." In the Gothenburg European Council meeting of June 2001, sustainable development was defined as a means of meeting the needs of the present generation without compromising those of the future. But however one wishes to define the term, green building or sustainable development has had a prolific impact on the U.S. construction market in the last decade, although its complete impact on the building construction industry and its suppliers is still being evaluated and may not be completely known for at least another decade.
Although the United States is the undisputed global leader in the construction of green buildings, other countries around the world are increasingly investing in sustainability. The European Union (EU) agreed on a new sustainable development strategy that has the potential to determine how the EU economy evolves in the coming decades. There are various green building assessment systems used around the world, such as the Building Research Establishment's Environmental Assessment Method (BREEAM), the Comprehensive Assessment System for Building Environmental Efficiency (CASBEE), Green Globes[TM] U.S., and Green Building (GB) Tool (Mago and Syal 2007).
Green building strategies mainly relate to land-use, building design, construction, and operation that in aggregate help minimize or mitigate a building's overall impact on the environment. The primary objective of green buildings is therefore to improve the efficiency with which buildings use available natural resources such as energy, water, and materials, while simultaneously minimizing a building's adverse impact on human health and the environment. There are many ways that green construction methods can be employed to build a new building designed for long-term operations and maintenance savings. Likewise, our nation has a vast existing building stock that can be made greener—and studies show that many building owners are interested in doing just that.
Once the myths and misinformation that surround sustainability and green design are set aside, a number of pertinent strategies become apparent and that will help achieve the objectives of building green. "Myth and misinformation surround the topic of sustainability, clouding its definition and purpose, and blurring the lines between green fact and fiction," says Leah B. Garris, senior associate editor at Buildings magazine. Another green building proponent, Alan Scott, principal, Green Building Services in Portland, OR states, "You can have a green building that doesn't really 'look' any different than any other building." Ralph DiNola, also a principal with Green Building Services echoes this statement, believing that a level of sustainability can easily be achieved by designing a green building that looks "normal." DiNola goes on to say that "People don't really talk about the value of aesthetics in terms of the longevity of a building. A beautiful building will be preserved by a culture for a greater length of time than an ugly building." Thus, for a building to be sustainable, it is important that it has the potential for a long-term, useful life. Aesthetics is a pivotal factor to achieving longevity, and longevity is pivotal to achieving sustainability.
But sustainability is more about conscious choices than about spending on superfluous options in hopes of earning an increased return on investment. Sustainability is about understanding nature and working with it and not against it. Finally, sustainability and building green is not about constructing structures that purport to be environmentally responsible but in reality sacrifice tenant/occupant comfort. This does not suggest that purchasing green products or recycling assets at the end of their useful lives is not sustainable, because it is. It is also appropriate for both the environment and for the health of a building's tenants and employees. However, a developer or building owner should not make a final determination without first taking the time to research the various options that will best work for your project and offer the best possible return on investment. When little or no time is set aside to sorting through the many possible sustainable options that are available, a decision may be made at the last minute, which often turns out to be the wrong one.
According to some, sustainability starts with the climate, and the primary reason that green strategies are considered green is because they work in harmony with the surrounding climatic and geographic conditions and not against them. This however requires a thorough understanding of the environment in which a project is being designed in order to fully utilize them to a project's advantage. Architects and designers that specialize in green building are fully aware of the need to be familiar with year-round weather conditions such as temperature, rainfall, humidity, site topography, prevailing winds, indigenous plants, etc., in order to succeed in sustainable design. But while climate impacts sustainability in one form or another, affected to some extent by a project's location, a building's degree of successful sustainable design can be measured by comparing it to a baseline condition. That baseline condition relates to the microclimate and environmental conditions of a building's location.
Furthermore, to successfully achieve sustainability, it is crucial to identify and reduce a building's need for resources that are scarce or locally unavailable, such as water and energy, and encourage the use of readily available resources such as the sun, rainwater, wind, etc. A full understanding of the microclimate is imperative because it reflects a comprehension to what is readily available and at a project's disposal such as the sun for heating and lighting, the wind for ventilation, and rainwater for irrigation and other water requirements. When considering sustainability, there are five principal categories that come to mind:
Materials and resource conservation
Indoor environmental quality.
(This list is modeled after the Washington, D.C.-based U.S. Green Building Council's LEED[TM] rating system.)
Water conservation and energy efficiency both rely significantly on the climate, whereas indoor environmental quality and materials and resource conservation are almost entirely independent of climate. Site sustainability on the other hand depends on climate to some degree, but more specifically on the specifications and microelements that are particular to a specific site. It is important to note that different regions or locations may encounter different climates—from hot, arid to humid, freezing, and windy. Thus, understanding a region's climate and readily available resources can help avoid applying inappropriate techniques to a project which will have an adverse impact and invariably increase costs.
1.3 ESTABLISHING MEASURABLE GREEN CRITERIA
In December 1983 the United Nations gave birth to the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) with the main intention of addressing growing concerns "about the accelerating deterioration of the human environment and natural resources and the consequences of that deterioration for economic and social development." The establishment of this commission is recognition by the UN General Assembly that the environmental problems we face are global in nature. The UN determined that it was in the best interest of all nations to establish common policies for sustainable development (Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future, http://www.un-documents.net/wced-ocf.htm). Following the formation of the WCED came the Brundtland Commission in 1987 which produced the Brundtland Report in August of the same year. Many found the findings of this report troubling; it stated, among other things:
"The 'greenhouse effect,' one such threat to life support systems, springs directly from increased resource use (Figure 1.2). The burning of fossil fuels and the cutting and burning of forests release carbon dioxide (CO2). The accumulation in the atmosphere of CO2 and certain other gases traps solar radiation near the earth's surface, causing global warming. This could cause sea level rises over the next 45 years large enough to inundate many low lying coastal cities and river deltas. It could also drastically upset national and international agricultural production and trade systems.
Excerpted from GREEN CONSTRUCTION PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND COST OVERSIGHT by Sam Kubba Copyright © 2010 by Elsevier Inc.. Excerpted by permission of Architectural Press. All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
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Table of ContentsCHAPTER 1: Defining ?Green?&?Sustainability?
CHAPTER 2: Elements of Green Design&Construction
CHAPTER 3: Green Project Requirements
CHAPTER 4: Green Construction Cost Monitoring
CHAPTER 5: How the Consultant Functions in the Requisition Process
CHAPTER 6: Choosing Materials and Products
CHAPTER 7: Project Cost Breakdown
CHAPTER 8: Economics of Green Design
CHAPTER 9: Review of Plans&Specifications
CHAPTER 10: Front-End Analysis
CHAPTER 11: Lender's Liability Issues
CHAPTER 12: Green Project Commissioning
CHAPTER 13: Typical Agreements
CHAPTER 14: Business development: The Approach