The Heart of the Matter: (Penguin Classics Deluxe Edition)

The Heart of the Matter: (Penguin Classics Deluxe Edition)

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Wilson sat on the balcony of the Bedford Hotel with his bald pink knees thrust against the ironwork..."
Graham Greene's masterpiece, The Heart of the Matter, tells the story of a good man enmeshed in love, intrigue, and evil in a West African coastal town. Scobie is bound by strict integrity to his role as assistant police commissioner and by severe responsibility to his wife, Louise, for whom he cares with a fatal pity.
When Scobie falls in love with the young widow Helen, he finds vital passion again yielding to pity, integrity giving way to deceit and dishonor—a vortex leading directly to murder. As Scobie's world crumbles, his personal crisis develops the foundation of a story by turns suspenseful, fascinating, and, finally, tragic.
Originally published in 1948, The Heart of the Matter is the unforgettable portrait of one man—flawed yet heroic, destroyed and redeemed by a terrible conflict of passion and faith. This Penguin Deluxe Edition features an introduction by James Wood.

For more than seventy years, Penguin has been the leading publisher of classic literature in the English-speaking world. With more than 1,700 titles, Penguin Classics represents a global bookshelf of the best works throughout history and across genres and disciplines. Readers trust the series to provide authoritative texts enhanced by introductions and notes by distinguished scholars and contemporary authors, as well as up-to-date translations by award-winning translators.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780142437995
Publisher: Penguin Publishing Group
Publication date: 09/28/2004
Series: Penguin Classics Deluxe Edition Series
Edition description: Penguin Classics Deluxe Edition
Pages: 288
Sales rank: 128,193
Product dimensions: 8.22(w) x 5.48(h) x 0.70(d)
Age Range: 18 Years

About the Author

Graham Greene (1904-1991), whose long life nearly spanned the length of the twentieth century, was one of its greatest novelists. Educated at Berkhamsted School and Balliol College, Oxford, he started his career as a sub-editor of The Times of London. He began to attract notice as a novelist with his fourth book, Orient Express, in 1932. In 1935, he trekked across northern Liberia, his first experience in Africa, recounted in A Journey Without Maps (1936). He converted to Catholicism in 1926, an edifying decision, and reported on religious persecution in Mexico in 1938 in The Lawless Roads, which served as a background for his famous The Power and the Glory, one of several “Catholic” novels (Brighton Rock, The Heart of the Matter, The End of the Affair). During the war he worked for the British secret service in Sierra Leone; afterward, he began wide-ranging travels as a journalist, which were reflected in novels such as The Quiet American, Our Man in Havana, The Comedians, Travels with My Aunt, The Honorary Consul, The Human Factor, Monsignor Quixote, and The Captain and the Enemy. In addition to his many novels, Graham Greene wrote several collections of short stories, four travel books, six plays, two books of autobiography—A Sort of Life and Ways of Escape—two biographies, and four books for children. He also contributed hundreds of essays and film and book reviews to The Spectator and other journals, many of which appear in the late collection Reflections. Most of his novels have been filmed, including The Third Man, which the author first wrote as a film treatment. Graham Greene was named Companion of Honour and received the Order of Merit among numerous other awards.

James Wood is a staff writer at The New Yorker, a visiting lecturer at Harvard, and the author of the national bestseller How Fiction Works and the novel The Book Against God. He lives in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Date of Birth:

October 2, 1904

Date of Death:

April 3, 1991

Place of Birth:

Berkhamsted, England

Place of Death:

Vevey, Switzerland


Balliol College, Oxford

Reading Group Guide


Set in a small British colonial outpost in Sierra Leone during World War II, The Heart of the Matter occupies and comments on the ambitious subjects of war, espionage, love, adultery, treachery, and betrayal. But at its core—at the heart of The Heart of the Matter —it is a novel of moral dilemmas. Its plot, its psychological and spiritual depth, even its political intrigues turn around two basic moral questions: Is it possible to make others happy? Is suicide ever the right choice? The novel's enigmatic protagonist, police officer Henry Scobie, even wonders if Christ's death might be understood as an act of suicide, since He allowed Himself to be sacrificed.

Before he reaches the climactic decision of his own moral crisis, Scobie struggles to make his poetry-loving and deeply unhappy wife, Louise, happy. Fed up with the ghastly climate, the remoteness, and, in her case, friendlessness of village life in Sierra Leone, Louise lets her husband know the full depth of her misery. And Henry Scobie is not a man who can bear the thought that he has caused another to suffer. When he is passed over for the job of Commissioner of Police, Louise feels humiliated in the eyes of the other British officers and their wives, and her unhappiness is brought to a fever pitch. She decides she must leave, and Henry makes a fateful promise to send her to South Africa, even though he lacks the funds to do so.

Thus begins a series of decisions and bargains that push Scobie into a terrifyingly unfamiliar moral terrain. Though Scobie wonders if any human being can arrange another's happiness and even considers the desire to be happy in a world so filled with pain and suffering to be impossibly foolish, he still tries to make Louise happy. To raise the money to pay for his wife's passage, Scobie strikes a bargain with Yusef that leads to Scobie's corruption after many years of honest service. And once Louise is gone, Scobie begins an affair with the recently widowed Helen and soon finds himself responsible for the happiness of two people, rather than just of one. When Louise returns, hoping to restore their strained marriage, she suggests that they receive communion together, which requires a full confession, and the cage door swings shut on Scobie and his deceptions.

Only one way of escape presents itself to Scobie, and he believes that eternal damnation awaits him if he chooses it. But he convinces himself that by sacrificing his own life, he can spare both Helen and Louise further misery at his expense. And it is here that the crucial question of the novel is asked most poignantly: how far should one sacrifice oneself for the happiness of others? Henry Scobie provides one answer but the novel itself leaves the question open for its readers to ponder.



Graham Greene was born on October 2, 1904, in Berkhamstead, England. He attended the Berkhamstead School where his father was headmaster and where, as a consequence, Greene was teased mercilessly by his classmates. At fifteen, he suffered a mental crisis, and after several questionable suicide attempts, ran away from home. In response, his parents sent him to a London psychoanalyst, Kenneth Richmond, who encouraged Greene to write and introduced him to a literary circle that included the poet Walter de la Mare.

Greene went on to Oxford, where he studied modern history and served as editor of The Oxford Outlook. During this period, Greene briefly joined the Communist Party and published a book of poetry, Babbling April. After graduating in 1925, while working as sub-editor for The Nottingham Journal, Greene met his future wife, Vivien Daryrell-Browning, when she wrote to correct some errors concerning Catholicism in his writing. He became a Catholic in 1926, the same year he was appointed sub-editor for The Times in London, and married Vivien a year later. When his first novel, The Man Within, was published in 1929 Greene resigned from the paper to write full time. After struggling to reach a larger audience with his next two books, he achieved great success with Stamboul Train (1932), which was published as Orient Express in the United States.

Greene was impressively prolific during the 1930s, publishing thirteen books—including, Brighton Rock (1938) and The Power and the Glory (1939), which won the Hawthornden Prize. He also traveled extensively to Liberia and Mexico and established himself as a renowned film critic for The Spectator. When World War II broke out, Greene joined the Ministry of Information and in 1941 served as a British Secret Service agent, first in Sierra Leone, an experience he drew upon in writingThe Heart of the Matter (1948), and then for the office of counterintelligence in London.

After the war, Greene collaborated with Carol Reed in writing a film, The Third Man, which won First Prize at Cannes in 1949. In 1955, he wrote The Quiet American, about American involvement in Indochina. More novels followed, including Our Man In Havanna (1958), The Comedians (1966), The Honorary Consul (1973), and The Human Factor (1978), which stayed on theNew York Times bestseller list for six months.

Greene's marriage was marred by several affairs and the couple separated in 1948 but never divorced. In the last years of his life, Greene lived in Vevey, Switzerland, with his long-time companion Yvonne Cloetta. He died there on April 3, 1991.


  • How relevant is the setting to the action of The Heart of the Matter? How do the climate, the war, and the indigenous people of this remote colonial outpost affect Scobie, Louise, Helen, and Wilson? Is the novel implicitly or explicitly anticolonial?
  • Scobie thinks that "no human being can really understand another, and no one can arrange another's happiness" (p. 75). What are the fateful consequences of Scobie's trying to make others happy? In what ways does the novel reveal the limits of our ability to understand one another?
  • What kind of woman is Louise? Why is her love of literature so often regarded with derision in the novel? Why is she so upset when Scobie is passed over for the commissionership? To what extent is she responsible for Scobie's downfall?
  • What role does Yusef play in the novel? By what means does he entice Scobie into a corrupt relationship? Are we meant to see him as a diabolical character or merely as someone working the colonial occupation to his best advantage?
  • In discussing mercy and damnation, Father Rank says, "The Church knows all the rules. But it doesn't know what goes on in a single human heart" (p. 254). To what extent can The Heart of the Matter be read as a critique of the Catholic Church? In what ways does the novel show the workings of the human heart to be beyond the comprehension of Catholic doctrine?
  • Early in the novel, Scobie promises to find a way to send Louise to South Africa, and we read that "He would still have made the promise even if he could have foreseen all that would come of it" (p. 50). What are the consequences of this promise? Why would Scobie still have made it, even if he could foresee the ruin that it would cause?
  • In what ways is Wilson a foil for Scobie? How are the two men different? For what reasons does Wilson wish to destroy Scobie?
  • How has the death of his only child affected Scobie and the decisions he makes throughout the novel?
  • Why is Scobie so drawn to Helen? Why do they feel so "safe" in each other's presence? Why does this sense of safety turn out to be so dangerous?
  • In what ways do the subplots of spying and diamond smuggling parallel the novel's central concern with relationships? In what ways is the novel about the tensions between openness and secrecy, honesty and deception?
  • At the end of the novel, Father Rank says of Scobie, "It may seem an odd thing to say—when a man's as wrong as he was—but I think, from what I saw of him, that he really loved God." To which Louise replies: "He certainly loved no one else" (p. 255). Are these statements about Scobie true? Does he love God and no one else? If so, how can we explain the choices he has made—to commit adultery and finally suicide?
  • After Pemberton's suicide, Scobie thinks: "Suicide was for ever out of his power—he couldn't condemn himself for eternity—no cause was important enough" (p. 83). Why does Scobie kill himself, even when he believes it will bring eternal damnation? How does he rationalize his suicide to himself? Should his suicide be considered self-sacrifice for the well-being of Helen and Louise? Is suicide his only choice? What else might he have done?
  • Customer Reviews

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    The Heart of the Matter 3.6 out of 5 based on 0 ratings. 53 reviews.
    Anonymous More than 1 year ago
    This version is a mess. Ali shows up as ALL or some other word entirely, and many times there are symbols in place of letters. This made it confusing to read. The title popped up im the middle of pages, and random numbers appeared throughout. A very poor version of the book. A shame, because this is a good story.
    Anonymous More than 1 year ago
    A great writer deserves better treatment.
    Andrew Papamarcos More than 1 year ago
    Please fix
    redbudnate on LibraryThing More than 1 year ago
    The Quiet American was my first book by Mr. Greene, and is now one of my favorite books. This was number three for me, and he has failed to disappoint. I did miss some of the sarcasm and dry humor that was more prevalent in American and Comedians, but I loved this book. In contrast to another reviewer, I liked the second half of the book the best. I like to hunt for good quotes. Here is one from Heart of the Matter I found interesting:"... of course one accepted the Church's teaching. But they taught also that God had sometimes broken his own laws, and was it less possible for him to put out a hand of forgiveness into the suicidal darkness than to have woken himself in the tomb, behind the stone? Christ had not been murdered - you couldn't murder God."
    charlie68 on LibraryThing More than 1 year ago
    Another good but almost great novel from Mr. Geene. About a police officer in a West African country, probably Sierra Leone, and his struggles with adultery and suicide.
    jgreerw on LibraryThing More than 1 year ago
    20th century, British, Catholicism, faith, marriage, colonialism, Africa
    pschellhase on LibraryThing More than 1 year ago
    "He felt tired by all the lies he would some time have to tell; he felt the wounds of those victims who had not yet bled. . . . Somewhere on the face of those obscure waters moved the sense of yet another wrong and another victim, not Louise, nor Helen."Greene's tale is dark and hardly redemptive, but as in THE POWER AND THE GLORY, Christ blazes forth suddenly in the least likely places--even in the faith of a man who is damned by his weakness.
    whitewavedarling on LibraryThing More than 1 year ago
    At first, I enjoyed this book; the writing is graceful, the story engaging, the characters believable. Unfortunately, the further I got into what I first found a relaxing and engaging read, the more I began to feel I was reading a book that, more than anything, was simply working to juxtapose Chopin's The Awakening with The Heart of Darkness and religious overtones....and in a rather melodramatic fashion as I went further and further. It's an interesting read in many ways, and from an obviously talented writer, but I have to admit that I grew bored with it midway through, to the extent that I had a difficult time finishing, and wanted quite a bit more than it offered. I'll try more of Greene's work, but I'm not sure I'd recommend this work to others unless it seemed to somehow directly fit their tastes.
    akfarrar on LibraryThing More than 1 year ago
    About three weeks ago I picked up `The Heart of the Matter¿ ¿ Greene¿s novel of 1948 set in West Africa during the Second World War.I first read it over 30 years ago, and it has everything I remember ¿ but a lot more.Perhaps because I¿ve been working on `The Taming of the Shrew¿ at the same time ¿ elements of religion, marriage and identity have stood out in focus in a way I don¿t remember. The Shrew is a play all about seeking salvation through appropriate partnering ¿ The Heart of the Matter, how salvation is individual and not to be found in others.This was a pretty dismal, depressing read the first time ¿ it touched on the meaning of existence and right way to live ¿ on lovelessness and the unforgivable: What I hadn¿t tasted then was the existential angst, the deepness of the despair and the strength of individual choice.Major Scobie, our everyman, is a policeman with a wife ¿ respectability personified. He is hated by the ex-pats because he isn¿t corrupt ¿ and loved by the Syrian dealer in corruption for the same reason. His lack of corruption perversely makes him untrustworthy to his own kind ¿ and his career suffers as a consequence. The only true friendship comes from the Syrian, Yusef ¿ very not British ¿ and it is a friendship Scobie can never accept.It is Scobie¿s fall from grace we follow ¿ in the true meaning of the words: He is not ruined in any earthly way ¿ but his spiritual existence is, at least in his own mind, spiraling ever further down through the circles of hell.In one of the more frighteningly understandable images of the book, Scobie sees himself as fisting god ¿ not fighting in the abstract, but physically punching and damaging the flesh: It is an image which horrifies in its very physicality ¿ and in the clarity of self-knowledge Scobie exhibits.Around this dying light flutter a whole cast of shadow-dwelling characters.Scobie¿s wife is damaged goods ¿ her husband¿s incorruptibility has driven her to this god forsaken land so she has plunged into the superficialities of Catholic dogma ¿ the ritual and the literal making her empty life fuller. She reads books and poetry ¿ replacing any real inner life with printed words and borrowed sounds.She is not a fool ¿ but it is her needs that keep what is left of their marriage alive ¿ most of it died with a young daughter back in England. Her leaving to live in South Africa opens the gap needed for a replacement `needer¿ ¿ and the final human dilemma that shatters Scobie¿s relationship with the divine.Wilson, spy-on-his-own-kind, and writer of trash poetry; driving Scobie no more than a mosquito could - tolerated as a fact of the environment ¿ in `love¿ with Scobie¿s wife and emptying the word of all depth.Helen, fallen woman and siren ¿ who is no more than a vessel the fates use to trap Scobie ¿ from her very first appearance as love-less, dried-skin of a girl clutching a stamp-album to near-whore for the ex-pat wild boy.A priest who knows he serves no one well ¿ least of oll Scobie; a priest who needs to confess as much as to listen to confession ¿ but perhaps the only one who sees the real relationship of Scobie to his god ¿ who appreciates the complexities and ultimate unknowability of any meaning in life.These moths flicker in and out of the life that is Scobie ¿ contrasting their weaknesses with the immense strength he is using in his `psychomachia¿ ¿ his soul-struggle.Scobie is ultimately heroic ¿ in his choice and in facing of the consequences of that choice. He is very much a 20th Century man ¿ having both the consciousness and anxiety William Golding identified as hallmarks in the work of Graham Greene.
    TerrapinJetta on LibraryThing More than 1 year ago
    Not as good as The End of the Affair I don't think, but outstanding even so.
    Arctic-Stranger on LibraryThing More than 1 year ago
    This is a heartbreaker of a novel. Scobie, and man of duty if there ever was one, falls in love while his wife is away. He is torn by guilt; the guilt of being a poor husband, and knowing he cannot do better, the guilt of finding love, the guilt of standing "poor in spirit" before God. One can only hope there is redemption for him. It is only sad until the last few pages, where it turns tragic.
    madhuri_agrawal on LibraryThing More than 1 year ago
    An interesting read by all means. A story of an honest man, caught under the weight of his sense of duty. It is touching to see his terrible loneliness, even amidst two women who loved him. In Graham's words, you can feel his hopelessness and isolation, and a desperate need to share his predicament.
    daizylee on LibraryThing More than 1 year ago
    One of Greene's "Catholic" books. A little bit of oversimplification goes on here with big issues like suicide and redemption, but it's definitely worth reading. Although if you're unfamiliar with Greene, I'd recommend starting with Our Man in Havana or The Quiet American.
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    Why aren't there real, English versions of Greene's novels?
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