High Exposure: An Enduring Passion for Everest and Unforgiving Places

High Exposure: An Enduring Passion for Everest and Unforgiving Places

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Overview

For generations of resolute adventurers, from George Mallory to Sir Edmund Hillary to Jon Krakauer, Mount Everest and the world's other greatest peaks have provided the ultimate testing ground. But the question remains: Why climb? In High Exposure, elite mountaineer and acclaimed Everest filmmaker David Breashears answers with an intimate and captivating look at his life.
For Breashears, climbing has never been a question of risk taking: Rather, it is the pursuit of excellence and a quest for self-knowledge. Danger comes, he argues, when ambition blinds reason. The stories this world-class climber and great adventurer tells will surprise you — from discussions of competitiveness on the heights to a frank description of the 1996 Everest tragedy.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780684865454
Publisher: Simon & Schuster
Publication date: 05/28/2000
Pages: 320
Sales rank: 388,735
Product dimensions: 6.12(w) x 9.25(h) x 0.90(d)

About the Author

David Breashears has made four trips to Everest's summit. His cinematic achievements include the IMAX® movie Everest and "Everest: The Death Zone" for the PBS series NOVA. He is the recipient of four Emmy awards for his accomplishments in cinematography. When not climbing, Breashears resides in Boston, Massachusetts.

Read an Excerpt

Prologue: Everest 1996

As a mountain climber, I've always felt more drawn to the top than driven from the bottom. I was twelve years old when I came upon the famous picture of Tenzing Norgay standing atop Mount Everest. From that moment on, I equated climbing Everest with man's capacity for hope. Indeed, there's nothing so exhilarating, so purifying, as standing on its summit more than 29,000 feet above the sea, surveying the planet below. Before May 1996, I had climbed Everest twice, and each time I had experienced the singular sense of rebirth that the mountain has to offer.

But Everest also offers the finality of death. On the morning of May 10 my Everest IMAX® Filming Expedition resolved to go up the mountain and help bring down survivors of an icy calamity that had left eight people dead. Over the next several days our expedition climbed up Everest, struggling with bitter cold and bitter truths and a deeply felt grief for our friends who would lie frozen in death forever. There's no place to bury the dead on an ice-bound mountaintop.

In the week following Everest's cruelest disaster, other expeditions broke their siege and went home. Why did we stay on and ascend the mountain once more? On reflection, I think it was because I felt a strong kinship not only with the dead but with the mountain itself. I hated seeing it stand in disarray, under scrutiny from the world's media; I wanted redemption from the tragedy. I couldn't accept leaving, not after all my years on the mountain, not with reasonable weather and our enormous stock of equipment and human skill, not without trying one more time. Call it a specialist's pride: I felt it was up to us to finish — safely — this unholy episode. I wanted to prove that Everest was — in its grandeur — an affirmation of life, not a sentence of death.

So, with the aid of a London-based weather service, we watched and waited for a break in the weather at the top. The jet stream, which sweeps across Everest in the spring, was howling around the summit, and no man-made instrument can accurately forecast when it will blow off the mountaintop and move north over the Tibetan plateau. For days, there was little change. I was dismayed but not astonished; I've seen the jet stream pound Everest for fifty uninterrupted days. Still, I searched reports for the tiniest shard of hope, anything to signal a positive turn. Nothing.

Eventually we decided it was time to move out from our Base Camp at 17,600 feet: better to face the mountain in our boots than sit around in our tents brooding about it. On the slopes, we'd see for ourselves what the mountain held for us, and we'd let the mountain tell us when to climb — or not to climb. So we struggled into our gear and headed up — the entire IMAX filming team — camp by camp.

We climbed back to the upper camps with the threat of the wind roaring ominously above at eighty to ninety miles per hour. In mountain climbing, it's not the wind around you that frightens you, but the wind that awaits you. Much of our trepidation was, to be sure, psychological. After all, skilled Everest veterans had died up there just weeks before.

At dusk on May 22, the day we reoccupied the high camp, Camp IV at 26,000 feet on the South Col, the winds died out. It was a rare and welcome moment as we pitched our tents; we could actually stand upright, and we could continue that night toward the summit minus a goodly portion of our fear.

The sun descended and the tent walls darkened. Though we were utterly exhausted, none of us could rest. Throughout the evening we readied our climbing gear and the film equipment and melted ice to drink. There's no malingering at the South Col camp. It's too high, too barren, and the air is too thin. There's no earthly reason to be there except to gain Everest's summit. We'd spent two years preparing for this summit attempt, training our bodies and minds, making checklists, customizing and winterizing and lightening the massive IMAX camera and everything else within our grasp.

Now the weather had given us the break we needed.

At 10:35 p.m. I unzipped my tent.

No matter how many times I've made this journey, it always begins in the same way. It's pitch dark outside as I unzip the door. What little heat has pooled inside spills out into the frigid night air; the sense of safety and security I feel in the tent vanishes with the warmth. On my hands and knees I crawl into one of the world's most hostile environments, into my ultimate arena — the last 3,000 vertical feet to the summit of Everest.

The stars were out that night but there was no moon. It was dark and cold, minus 30 degrees; the night was still. Looking above, I could barely see the outline of Everest, a dark, lopsided pyramid cut out from the stars.

I sat on a small rock to put on my crampons (sharp metal spikes attached to my boots), which dug into the snow and ice. Bare-handed, I checked and rechecked to make sure the heel and toe clips were biting through the thin neoprene of my overboots, an extra layer of insulation over my climbing boots. I hadn't planned on using overboots up there. But after the catastrophe I felt inordinately vulnerable, not just to the cold, but to my own mortality. I've always relied on strength of mind to drive my body, and the body has always been good with plenty of horsepower. But the deaths in that disastrous climb reminded me that I was forty years old now. I had borrowed the overboots from a friend, Jon Krakauer, who had survived the May 10 storm.

I walked among the nylon domes of the heavy-weather tents, hoarsely shouting that it was time to go. The tents were already alive, sides huffing out with the movements inside, zippers scraping in the silent night. Sherpas and team members gathered their gear, and I mentally ran through my own checklist one more time: two full bottles of oxygen, spare mittens, ice axe, and, most important, my compass fixed with a heading so that even in a storm I could find my way home. There was no idle chatter in the air, only tension and focus on the mission.

The South Col is a broad expanse of rocks, a hard, flat, forbidding surface. I knew that the featureless terrain had been a deadly problem for the descending climbers on the night of May 10 because, without a compass to guide them, there were no directional clues in the blizzard's whiteout. Lost and desperately searching for high camp, eleven climbers had collapsed at the edge of the 8,000-foot precipice of Everest's Kangshung Face overlooking Tibet. There, a few hundred yards from safety, one woman, Yasuko Namba, had frozen to death, and a Texan named Beck Weathers had suffered mutilating frostbite.

I crossed the South Col to the first icy incline, awkwardly duckwalking on crampons scraping against fist-sized rocks and bulletproof ice. Like my team, I knew I was hypoxic (starved for oxygen), severely sleep-deprived, dehydrated, and malnourished. Yet here I was, commanding my body to work as hard as it had ever worked. That makes for tough going. But after an hour of robotically placing one foot in front of the other, I finally found my rhythm. All I could hear was the raspy sound of my labored breathing as I inhaled and exhaled through my oxygen mask, my breaths keeping pace with each step.

Yet this time there was no matching sense of purpose and exhilaration, only the grim knowledge of the littered battlefield we would find as we climbed higher. I'd been involved in body recoveries on Everest before, but there had been nothing in my training to prepare me to pass through the open graveyard waiting above: This time the graveyard held friends.

There are other bodies — bodies of people I'd never met — scattered from Advance Base Camp to points near the summit. Several hundred yards below Advance Base Camp, at 21,100 feet, a climber lay near the route, wrapped in a blue tarp. And for years, before the wind finally blew her remains over the Kangshung Face, every Everest expedition climbing on this route had passed Hannelore Schmatz, a skeletal landmark just above the South Col with her brown hair streaming in the wind.

Also near the South Col camp lay a Czech and, higher up, a Bulgarian. Years earlier, on the glacier below, I'd gathered the frozen bodies of two Nepalese climbers.

The North Col route, on the Tibetan side, was similarly strewn with climbers who had never come down. In 1986 I'd helped carry a Sherpa friend buried by an avalanche to Rongbuk monastery for cremation. And one of my documentaries followed the search for the most celebrated of the dead, British legend George Mallory, who vanished near the summit in 1924. Wherever they lie, the dead mutely testify to the sinister ease with which a day on Everest can come undone.

Despite the snow and ice, Everest is as dry as a desert; the sun and wind quickly mummify human remains. They come to resemble nothing so much as that ancient iceman discovered years ago in an Italian mountain pass. I've dealt with them before, and hardened myself to the harsh knowledge that the line between life and death is mercilessly thin in the frigid and rarefied air of this unforgiving place.

But this night was different; those waiting ahead were people I had known and respected. We knew exactly where one of the best-known Everest guides, Rob Hall, had died, due to his final radio transmissions. From other reports we had a good idea where Scott Fischer lay. Doug Hansen died near Rob and we thought we'd find him, too. But Andy Harris was still missing. Our team had had nearly two weeks since the tragedy to face our fears and sorrows and anger. Still, it's one thing to deal with your demons at the foot of the mountain, quite another to see comrades lying dead in the snow.

Hours passed as I resolutely climbed higher and higher, with little sense of gaining height because of the darkness beyond the circle of light from my headlamp. I felt alone and detached, in a trancelike state, as I always have on these summit slopes. But when I looked back I could see the shafts of light from my companions' headlamps, and it was comforting to know that they were there, making their solitary journeys with me.

Sporadic gusts of wind swirled loose powder snow and I would pause with my head bowed east, away from the icy spray. Prior to dawn, at 27,100 feet, below the gully that leads to the Southeast Ridge, I was startled by a blue object off to my right. I was hypoxic and briefly confused. From Anatoli Boukreev's report I'd known that Scott Fischer would be near this spot. But the intense effort of the night had smothered that thought. And now my dulled brain struggled to make sense of it: How could someone as strong and resourceful as Scott end up here? It seemed dreamlike; it couldn't be real.

I didn't go near him. On this day I needed to conserve myself, and distance was a defense. By the light of my headlamp I could see that he was lying on his back across a narrow snow-covered terrace, one leg outstretched, one bent, and his arm tightly clenched across his chest. His body position was awkward, slightly contorted. I could readily imagine Scott resisting to the end, his strength and will to live slipping away, until finally he lay back and death stole over him. Anatoli, who tried to save Scott on May 11, had lashed a backpack over his friend's head. I was grateful for that. I didn't want to see the ruin of Scott's handsome, friendly face.

I turned, climbing onto the Southeast Ridge at 27,600 feet. It's a vivid sight, peering over a knife-edged crest down two vertical miles of the Kangshung Face into Tibet. It seemed as though I could see halfway across the continent from this vantage point. Sun rays lit the tallest summits of the Himalayas first, one at a time, like candles glowing above ink-dark valleys. To the east, the world's third highest peak, Kanchenjunga, stood rimmed in crimson. And much closer, Makalu, the fifth highest, shimmered orange and pink.

Three hard hours later we reached the South Summit and the traverse to the Hillary Step, a forty-foot cliff at 28,700 feet. The route here is wild and exposed, along a narrow corniced ridge, the last barrier to the summit. I had planned to film this dramatic traverse as a centerpiece for our film. At its start, between a wind-blown cornice and a rock wall, lay a red-clad figure. He was lying on his side, buried from the shoulders up in drifted snow. His left arm rested on his hip and his hand was bare.

It was Rob Hall; no mistaking him, even from a distance. He was wearing a red Wilderness Experience jacket like one I'd owned. His red Patagonia bib overalls bore a distinctive checkerboard pattern in the weave which I had noticed two weeks earlier when I descended past him and his party of clients. He was facing east with his back to the wind.

My first thought was that — typical of Rob — the site seemed well ordered. It was clear that he had made a determined attempt to survive. He'd removed his crampons to prevent them from conducting cold through his boots. His oxygen bottles were arranged carefully around him. Two ice axes were thrust vertically into the snow. One I knew belonged to Rob, the other — we later learned — to his assistant guide, Andy Harris.

The last thing you want to do in a storm is lay down your ice axe. Snow will cover it, or it will slide away, or you'll simply forget where you put it. Upright and at hand like this, the axes showed that Rob and Andy — or at least one of them — had been thinking clearly in the early hours of their desperate bivouac.

I knelt in the snow next to Rob. I couldn't see his face and so felt a little distant from him. Then I looked at his bare hand, still undamaged by the elements. What was a seasoned mountaineer like Rob doing without a glove? A glove is a climber's armor. How had Rob's vanished?

I looked down at my own heavily mittened hands and pondered sadly. So much of Rob's life had mirrored my own. We were roughly the same age, with a similar level of experience, ability, ambition, and confidence. Both of us were driven to make a life in the mountains, a life on Everest. But now he lay dead.

Studying his bare hand, I suddenly understood the dread Rob must have faced, the terrible knowledge that he was so cold and weak that he'd lost control of his own life. He'd been alive and uninjured, but the wind and cold of that awful night left him hypoxic, hypothermic, and frostbitten, and so he'd lain trapped in this remote outpost, utterly unable to save himself. I couldn't imagine a worse nightmare.

Mingled with my sorrow, I must confess, were feelings of anger toward Rob which I had carried with me all the way from Base Camp. I knew in my bones that the mistakes of May 10 could have been avoided, that hubris had likely doomed Rob and his party. Of all the guides, Rob had been the most outspoken about his prowess, and the most proprietary about the mountain. He had sometimes acted as if he were a part-owner of Everest, an attitude I found disturbing. Everest is many things to many people, but owned is not one of them.

His clients had come for a climb, not to take serious risks. Rob's expertise was supposed to be their warranty against danger and Rob had let them down. There was an ugly premonition of disaster. We'd watched fifty-five people swarm the fixed ropes to Camp III before their summit push. That was the day I'd decided to take our expedition back down the mountain and wait for the weather — and the crowds — to clear before attempting the summit ourselves. So I was angry at the sorrow and chaos caused by these tragic deaths. That's not how things are supposed to work for clients paying to climb this great mountain.

I looked at Rob, and at the bare, open hand that would never draw on another mitten or hold an ice axe again. I held up a handful of snow and let it blow away like ashes. As I sat with Rob and thought about his valiant attempt to save a client and the questions that needed answering, I saw myself lying there: Would I have done the same?

Suddenly the Sherpas appeared, coming up the ridge carrying my camera equipment. Time to move on, I silently announced to Rob. I couldn't film this spot. His death had made it hallowed ground for me; this was one piece of Everest he could, at last, call his own.

I stood and put on my pack. Then we began to climb the final sweep of the mountain.

Copyright © 1999 by David Breashears

Foreword

Most of the world knows David Breashears as an uncommonly intrepid filmmaker: the guy who brought back spectacular IMAX footage from the top of Mount Everest. Others associate his name primarily with Red Flag Over Tibet, the disquieting, Emmy Award-winning documentary about the Chinese occupation of the Buddhist homeland, which he made for the PBS series Frontline. Among a handful of Hollywood insiders he is celebrated, as well, for being the guerrilla cinematographer who smuggled a 35mm Arriflex into Tibet and surreptitiously filmed scenes that lent crucial authenticity to the big-budget epic Seven Years in Tibet.

The renown that Breashears has earned for his work in film is certainly deserved. But to a small, immoderately idealistic community of rock climbers who lived in Colorado in the 1970s (a community of which he and I were part), his most remarkable feat has nothing to do with making movies. Some of us believed — and still believe — that Breashears's defining moment was his authorship of a little-known climbing route, name of Perilous Journey, which rises in the foothills outside Boulder, Colorado. The large-format film, Everest, the Emmy Award, his four expeditions to the 29,028-foot summit of Everest — they all pale in comparison with his first ascent of this obscure rock climb, which measures scarcely 100 feet from bottom to top. If you want to understand David Breashears — if you hope to comprehend what really makes him tick — you need to know a little about Perilous Journey.

The forested hills south and west of Boulder bristle with precipitous crags that have long attracted climbers from around the globe. In July 1975, Breashears — then a climbing-obsessed nineteen-year-old casting about for a suitable challenge — latched on to the idea of pioneering a new route on one of these crags, an out-of-the-way cliff called the Mickey Mouse Wall. The route he envisioned scribed a line up a swath of untrammeled sandstone that, to the casual observer, appears much too steep and smooth to climb. But after careful study of the cliff's geologic idiosyncrasies, Breashears became convinced that the rock had a sufficient number of surface blemishes — feldspar crystals, dime-size divots, and tiny pebbles of conglomerate protruding from the vertical plane — to allow upward progress, at least in theory.

It was obvious that if the route could be climbed at all, it was going to be exceedingly difficult, right at the limit of what was physically possible at the time. It was also obvious that the absence of deep natural fissures would preclude the placement of aluminum nuts to safeguard his passage over the route's most severe section. If he lost his purchase on any of the minuscule finger- and toeholds, he would plummet into the jagged boulders that line the base of the cliff.

As it happens, the broad ledge that marks the summit of Perilous Journey can be reached via a routine scramble up a broken section of cliff nearby. Before attempting the route, it would have been a simple matter for Breashears to rappel down the cliff from the top, rehearse all the moves with a safety rope from above, and drill a series of expansion bolts that would erase all the danger from his ascent. But according to the climbing subculture's unwritten ethical codex, the practice of pre-drilling bolts on rappel and unlocking a climb's secrets with a top rope constituted a despicable sort of cheating. The whole point of doing a route like Perilous Journey was to test one's mettle — to challenge not only one's physical skills, but take measure of one's judgment and nerve as well. The nonexistent margin for error was soberly acknowledged, but it was celebrated rather than lamented. In our youthful, self-absorbed zeal, we liked to imagine that the gravely serious stakes set climbing apart from lesser pursuits (such as mainstream sports, or working for a living). No climber in Boulder believed more passionately in the unforgiving tribal ethos than Breashears.

On the chosen day (as he recounts later in this book), he bushwhacked up to the bottom of the Mickey Mouse Wall at dawn, accompanied by his friend Steve Mammen, who'd agreed to belay him. The morning smelled of pine and juniper. Nobody else was around. Breashears laced up his painfully tight climbing shoes, tied a rope to his waist harness, and dipped his fingers into a pouch of gymnast's chalk. Then he stepped up to the cliff and laid his hands on the brick-red sandstone. The climbing became diabolically difficult almost immediately. Crimping lentil-size pebbles with his fingertips, Breashears muscled and balanced his way slowly upward, shifting his weight from hold to minuscule hold with meticulous care, unraveling the route's defenses inch by vertical inch. Although the physical strain on his digits and forearms was nearly overwhelming, he maintained his poise and Zen-like focus, betraying none of the tremendous effort required simply to grip the rock, to say nothing of making upward progress.

Twenty feet above the talus, in the middle of an overhanging bulge, Breashears arrived at the route's first substantial hold: a shallow, angled slot wide enough to grip with both hands. This hold also presented him with his first opportunity to place protective hardware: He managed to wedge a nut into the slot, albeit not very securely, clipped a carabiner to it, then ran his rope through the carabiner. In the event that he fell, the dubious nut would almost certainly be plucked from the rock like a berry from a vine, but, Breashears recalls, "It was oddly comforting to see the rope running through that solitary, useless piece of protection."

The difficulties resumed immediately past the slot, and continued with scant respite for another twenty feet. Then, unexpectedly, he encountered a square-cut shelf about as thick as the spine of a hastily written book. When he pulled himself up to its relative security, he had reason to believe that the climb's major trials were over. The shelf stuck out from the wall no more than an inch and a half, but above it the cliff leaned back at an angle slightly less than vertical. By standing on the shelf and pressing his chest tightly against the rock, he could actually drop both hands to his sides and give his arms a desperately needed rest after twenty minutes of intense, nonstop effort. Better yet, the sandstone above his head was pocked with a series of Swiss cheese-like holes that looked big enough to accept his fingers to a depth of half an inch or more. Perilous Journey seemed to be a fait accompli.

When Breashears reached up and felt the lowest of the pockmarks, however, he was alarmed to discover that it was much smoother and shallower than it had appeared from below. He reached higher, and then higher still, but none of the holes provided the kind of handhold he was willing to trust his life to. He was four stories off the ground. A slip from this point would send him hurtling into the boulders below.

The gravity of his circumstances inspired him to redouble his concentration. A more thorough examination of the wall overhead turned up a rounded, jelly bean-size blister that he could wrap two fingertips around. Awkwardly reaching across his body until his right hand was above his left shoulder, he clenched the jelly bean, levered his body upward, and stretched as far to the left as he could. He smeared the soles of his boots onto a nearly featureless patch of sandstone, shifted his weight onto his left foot, and thereby managed to touch a small scoop that was slightly deeper than the other pockmarks were, and had a tiny ridge across its lower lip on which he could hook the callused pad of a fingertip. Twenty inches above this pathetic hold was a substantial ledge. Committing his life to the tips of two fingers on his left hand, he cranked for all he was worth, snaked his right hand up to the ledge, and wrapped his paws securely around its reassuring contours. A glance overhead revealed that the rest of the route was covered with large, in-cut holds. Within minutes he stood triumphantly atop Perilous Journey.

It was a visionary ascent, one of the boldest achievements in the annals of North American mountaineering, done in impeccable style. A handful of other climbs of comparable difficulty existed, but seldom, if ever, had such extreme difficulties been undertaken in circumstances where the climber was unlikely to survive a fall. Yet, to nobody's surprise, Breashears wasn't hounded by journalists for interviews. No mention of Perilous Journey appeared in any newspaper, local or otherwise. He received no remuneration or formal recognition of any kind. Word of the climb, however, filtered gradually through the mountaineering grapevine. His ascent was reenacted in pantomime, move by move, in climbers' camps from Yosemite to the Tetons to the Shawangunks of New York. He had achieved something he valued much more than wealth or fame: the respect and admiration of his peers.

In writing this foreword, my intent is not to nominate Breashears for sainthood. I have spent enough time in his proximity to know that he is impatient, driven, incredibly tightly wound. I have witnessed his explosive temper; indeed I have felt the sting of it firsthand. But he possesses, in abundance, a quality perhaps best described as "character." And I admire this trait even more than I admire what he has achieved in the arenas of film and mountaineering. Although I have disagreed with him both publicly and privately, I have always been impressed with his willingness to act on his convictions — even when his ire has been directed at me.

Two decades after I first met David Breashears on a crag above Boulder, chance brought us together again on the slopes of Everest during what turned out to be a very bad season. When disaster struck, he placed the most important film project of his career in jeopardy, without hesitation, in order to provide assistance to those of us who were in trouble. That the creator of Perilous Journey emerged as one of the heroes of the 1996 Everest calamity came as no surprise to me.

Jon Krakauer

Boulder, Colorado

February 1999

Copyright © 1999 by David Breashears

Table of Contents

Contents

FOREWORD BY JON KRAKAUER

PROLOGUE

1. THE KID

2. PERILOUS JOURNEY

3. WORM

4. CAMERA OBSCURA

5. HIMALAYAS

6. EVEREST

7. THE BROTHERHOOD OF THE ROPE

8. STRANGE WINDS

9. CLIFFHANGER

10. IMAX®

11. THE CRUCIBLE

12. REDEMPTION

EPILOGUE

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

PHOTO CREDITS

INDEX

Interviews

On Monday, May 10th, barnesandnoble.com welcomed David Breashears to discuss HIGH EXPOSURE.


Moderator: Good evening, David Breashears, and welcome to the barnesandnoble.com Auditorium. We are thrilled you could join us tonight to chat about HIGH EXPOSURE! How are you this evening?

David F. Breashears: Well, I'm equally thrilled and very pleased to be part of this chat.


Lucia Rodrigues from Sao Paulo, Brazil: I'd like to know what makes a person climb Everest, knowing all the risks and that you can be killed in the next minute by a storm or freeze to death. Thanks, and nice to write to you.

David F. Breashears: There are many misconceptions about climbing Mt. Everest. One of them would be about the possibility of being killed in a storm, as for most of the time during the regular climbing seasons, the weather can be quite calm. But it is true that one of the challenges of climbing Everest is its unpredictability. From reading my book, you will see that one can avoid many of the possible hazards in climbing Everest through having had an apprenticeship in climbing. In fact, that is a theme of my book: apprenticeship. Preparation, and going into the mountains and climbing in a safe and self-reliant manner. If I thought when I went into the mountains that there was a strong likelihood I would die, I wouldn't go -- although the risk is a part of the challenge, and a part of the attraction. I'll finish by saying that climbing isn't about death and storms. It's really an affirmation of life and hope. I go to climb a mountain not to die, but to feel more alive and to gain a greater value of some of the more simple and mundane things in life.


Greg from Chicago: Have you had your own share of near misses on Everest or other climbs? What was the worst?

David F. Breashears: I didn't manage to get through 20 years of Himalayan climbing without a few close brushes with death. Those moments had nothing to do with how prepared we were, or how talented we were or weren't. It had to do with being in the wrong place at the wrong time, and poor judgment. On the north side of Everest, and this is in my book, I was caught in an avalanche just below the North Col, at 23,000 feet. It's the same route that Mallory and Irvine tried in 1924. A large slab avalanche started to carry me away and over the ice cliffs below on what would have been a 1,000 foot plunge, but a thin old fixed rope held tight enough so that the avalanche slid out from underneath me. But there was a moment there when I had already accepted without any real drama or fear or terror that I was going over the edge. It was more a kind of shock and indignation, which is "I can't believe this is happening!" Another time, on a peak -- and this is in the book -- called Nameless Tower in Pakistan, I was climbing in a deep gully, and the top was shaped like a funnel. And ice which had formed overnight on granite slabs high above began to melt and come loose in the morning sun and fall 1,000 feet into the funnel, and into the 20-foot-wide gully I was in with nowhere to go. And so, crashing by me, as I flattened myself against the wall with my pack and back to the wall, was 1,000 pounds of ice, which thankfully missed me. But it was very unsettling for the next half hour. The only way out was up. Going out was too time-consuming, and the higher we climbed, the narrower it got. And thankfully the ice did not come down again until we got out.


Willem Hartong from my dimly lit room: I climbed a mountain once. It was called Pillsbury Mountain in upstate New York. It was more of an ambitious hill as compared to Everest, but I noticed as a cognizant and astute rookie climber that the temperature dropped significantly as I went up. In the movie (which, by the way, contained beautiful cinematography and was really good) I got a sense of how fatigue and lack of oxygen were a hindrance to climbers, but how much of a factor was the cold, especially for you and your equipment?

David F. Breashears: I believe the temperature generally drops about three or four degrees Fahrenheit for every 1,000 feet in elevation. But high on Everest, the cold is compounded by your hypoxia, meaning you're oxygen-starved, and the body's ability to heat itself is diminished. Up high we deal not only with the cold. The temperature variations on a day on Everest without changes in elevation can be quite dramatic. In the early spring, in mid-April at 24,000 feet, a predawn morning can be -20° F. Mornings much higher up can be -30° F. And it's bitterly cold in the morning, trying to load a 42-pound steel camera, because you need to do it without gloves or with extremely thin gloves. But the cold then becomes compounded dramatically by the wind, and the wind on Everest is in the end generally what causes a lot of frostbite and kills people -- a combination of wind and cold. But for me, the problems with filming are that you stand still when you film, and standing still in the mountains is antithetical to staying warm. So there are many problems of the cold that are exacerbated by having to operate large cameras and stand relatively motionless.


Beth from Dallas: Do you have any plans for future expeditions to Everest? If so, do you plan to attempt a climb without supplemental oxygen?

David F. Breashears: There was a time when I used to imagine myself climbing Everest without bottled oxygen, because one of my mountaineering heroes, Reinhold Messner, felt that the great peaks of the world should be climbed without artificial assistance. But in the four times I've been on the summit of Everest, I've had the duties and obligations of a filmmaker, and I needed to be able to use all my creative abilities and my imagination. So I've used oxygen as I felt I was obligated to use it, to be able to execute my job the way people expected me to. I found a way to challenge myself in a different way. Climbing Everest without bottled oxygen is a special kind of challenge, so for me over the years, having to think as a filmmaker up high, plan shots, think of a story, and operate the filmmaking equipment was my own, if you will, "Everest without bottled oxygen" challenge.


Jose Luis from Los Angeles: The Spanish girl who climbed -- is she still doing it?

David F. Breashears: Yes, Aracele Sagarra is a very active and talented climber. In the year after her success on Everest she went back to the Himalayas and climbed in India, and for the past three months or four months and throughout the winter, every time I've tried to get her on the phone, she's on some climbing trip to either the Pyrenees or the French Alps. So she is not an amateur or a dilettante. She practices her craft as often as possible.


Andy from Hoboken, NJ: Although I have yet to read your book, I'm anxious to do so. Ever since I read Jon Krakauer's INTO THIN AIR, I've been reading as much about Everest as I can. How well did you get to know Rob Hall and the other members of Krakauer's ill-fated team? Why, in your opinion, were the telltale danger signs ignored by such experienced climbers?

David F. Breashears: As you'll see in reading the book, expeditions gathered at the base camp are sometimes a little bit like islands, and we tend to be focused on our own needs and on what we've set out to do. I knew Rob from other years, from other trips, but talked to him at length only a handful of times in 60 days. I was very busy with the work on the IMAX Everest film. And Jon I knew, I'd known Jon Krakauer for 20 years, but that year only spent about five minutes with him. That's just the nature of expeditions. Sometimes we wander over to the other base camps, but there's a real sense of team and a real cohesion, and people spend most of their time in their own camps. In answer to your second question, that is something we will never know, and it's still a mystery to me. Rob was a very, very experienced climber; he had climbed Everest four times before. I don't think the storm coming in was that obvious to people. But ignoring his professed and well-known turnaround time is something I'll never understand. It just doesn't make sense. But I can't possibly know what was going on in his mind.


Denise Doyle from West Chester, PA: Hello David. Thank you for being available to discuss your book tonight. I read the prologue today online and can't wait to read the book. The experience you all had must have been overwhelming. Your feelings when you saw Rob Hall brought tears to my eyes. I have a question about Scott Fischer. I remember from Krakauer's book that someone wanted to bring the chain around his neck to a family member, but couldn't do it because it was so painful to touch him. How is the family member? Was it his wife? My daughter is here with me and she thinks I am mixed up -- that it was Rob Hall. I don't remember Scott being mentioned in the IMAX movie.

David F. Breashears: Actually, Jan Arnold, Rob's wife, had asked Ed Viesters to bring back something from Rob, and I believe other climbers had hoped to bring back something from Scott. And those two incidents would be covered in INTO THIN AIR. But your daughter is right. In our film, we discuss what Jan asked Ed to bring back from Rob. And how are the family members? Rob's wife had their daughter, and so I believe she's nearing three, and the name is Sarah, and Scott's wife, I have no real contact with, so I don't know how she's doing.


Don West from San Antonio: Currently, a 15-year-old boy is attempting to reach the top. Can someone that young really be qualified to make that climb?

David F. Breashears: I don't really think so. A person like that would inevitably be in the presence of adults, and since so much of climbing safely in the Himalayas is about judgment, and so much of judgment comes from experience and growing up, I can't imagine a 15-year-old having the proper judgment. And although young men tend to have a tremendous amount of physical strength, they don't know how to husband their strength and tend not to have a tremendous amount of endurance. But if he's on the mountain now, I don't want to stand in judgment of him. Only he knows if he's good enough, and I wish him a safe journey.


Beth from Dallas: What do you do to stay in shape when you are not on an expedition?

David F. Breashears: Generally, I'm an active person. I get out and climb when I can, particularly ice climbing because I like winter. When I'm in a city, and I live in Boston, and I can't get out in the mountains, and as fitness is crucial to being able to climb well and enjoy climbing, I will go to a gym, [though] generally not a rock gym. But I haven't been training as much lately as I should. [smiles]


Chris Anderson from East Hartford, CT: Hello, David. In a previous post you talked about "preparing for a climb." How do you prepare for a climb on Everest? Not having any mountaineering experience myself, I am always amazed at how people conquer the elements, both physical and natural, in order to stand on top of the world. I look forward to reading your book, and best of luck to you.

David F. Breashears: I wish I could answer that question, but that is the first question tonight that I have to say is answered in the book. But my preparation was very long and sometimes quite arduous, from early innocent forays as a 13-year-old, to an ascent of Ama Deblam, at 22,400 feet, when I was 23 years old. I was taught by my climbing mentors that climbing was a series of steps, and you mastered each step, each discipline, until you moved on to the next one.


Ned from Michigan: Why do you think Everest captures our imagination in the way it does? How does it capture yours as a filmmaker? As a climber?

David F. Breashears: I'll speak for myself: Everest captured my imagination when I was a 12-year-old boy, and I saw an image of Tensing Norgay standing atop Everest with his ice axe and flag held aloft in triumph during the first ascent with Edmund Hillary: May 29, 1953. For me, climbing great mountains gives men hope and encourages our more optimistic nature. Climbing for me also provided an identity, and for a young man, a young boy, who really didn't fit in. And a path to excellence, and a form of discipline, and just a good strong sense of self-worth. And of course, there's just the joy and rewards of climbing and being high on a rock tied to your companion, two people with great faith in each other's abilities, and sorting out the route and the difficulties and sharing an experience, and then of course there's just the majesty, the physical beauty of some of these places. It's very uplifting. And there is, as I wrote in my book, at one level…a sort of redemptive power to that kind of hardship, and occasional suffering -- it's very difficult. So, climbing, as you can see from my answer, is not just about climbing, it's about many more deeper and complex things.


Moderator: Thank you so much for joining us for what has been a fascinating chat tonight, David Breashears. You've been an excellent guest. Before you go, do you have any closing comments for the online audience?

David F. Breashears: Thank you all for your wonderful questions. I hope you enjoy the book. Goodnight.


Foreword

Foreword

Most of the world knows David Breashears as an uncommonly intrepid filmmaker: the guy who brought back spectacular IMAX footage from the top of Mount Everest. Others associate his name primarily with Red Flag Over Tibet, the disquieting, Emmy Award-winning documentary about the Chinese occupation of the Buddhist homeland, which he made for the PBS series Frontline. Among a handful of Hollywood insiders he is celebrated, as well, for being the guerrilla cinematographer who smuggled a 35mm Arriflex into Tibet and surreptitiously filmed scenes that lent crucial authenticity to the big-budget epic Seven Years in Tibet.

The renown that Breashears has earned for his work in film is certainly deserved. But to a small, immoderately idealistic community of rock climbers who lived in Colorado in the 1970s (a community of which he and I were part), his most remarkable feat has nothing to do with making movies. Some of us believed -- and still believe -- that Breashears's defining moment was his authorship of a little-known climbing route, name of Perilous Journey, which rises in the foothills outside Boulder, Colorado. The large-format film, Everest, the Emmy Award, his four expeditions to the 29,028-foot summit of Everest -- they all pale in comparison with his first ascent of this obscure rock climb, which measures scarcely 100 feet from bottom to top. If you want to understand David Breashears -- if you hope to comprehend what really makes him tick -- you need to know a little about Perilous Journey.


The forested hills south and west of Boulder bristle with precipitous crags that have long attracted climbers fromaround the globcrets with a top rope constituted a despicable sort of cheating. The whole point of doing a route like Perilous Journey was to test one's mettle -- to challenge not only one's physical skills, but take measure of one's judgment and nerve as well. The nonexistent margin for error was soberly acknowledged, but it was celebrated rather than lamented. In our youthful, self-absorbed zeal, we liked to imagine that the gravely serious stakes set climbing apart from lesser pursuits (such as mainstream sports, or working for a living). No climber in Boulder believed more passionately in the unforgiving tribal ethos than Breashears.

On the chosen day (as he recounts later in this book), he bushwhacked up to the bottom of the Mickey Mouse Wall at dawn, accompanied by his friend Steve Mammen, who'd agreed to belay him. The morning smelled of pine and juniper. Nobody else was around. Breashears laced up his painfully tight climbing shoes, tied a rope to his waist harness, and dipped his fingers into a pouch of gymnast's chalk. Then he stepped up to the cliff and laid his hands on the brick-red sandstone. The climbing became diabolically difficult almost immediately. Crimping lentil-size pebbles with his fingertips, Breashears muscled and balanced his way slowly upward, shifting his weight from hold to minuscule hold with meticulous care, unraveling the route's defenses inch by vertical inch. Although the physical strain on his digits and forearms was nearly overwhelming, he maintained his poise and Zen-like focus, betraying none of the tremendous effort required simply to grip the rock, to say nothing of making upward progress.

Twenty feet above the talus, in the middle of an overhanging bulge, Breashears ar rived at the route's first substantial hold: a shallow, angled slot wide enough to grip with both hands. This hold also presented him with his first opportunity to place protective hardware: He managed to wedge a nut into the slot, albeit not very securely, clipped a carabiner to it, then ran his rope through the carabiner. In the event that he fell, the dubious nut would almost certainly be plucked from the rock like a berry from a vine, but, Breashears recalls, "It was oddly comforting to see the rope running through that solitary, useless piece of protection."

The difficulties resumed immediately past the slot, and continued with scant respite for another twenty feet. Then, unexpectedly, he encountered a square-cut shelf about as thick as the spine of a hastily written book. When he pulled himself up to its relative security, he had reason to believe that the climb's major trials were over. The shelf stuck out from the wall no more than an inch and a half, but above it the cliff leaned back at an angle slightly less than vertical. By standing on the shelf and pressing his chest tightly against the rock, he could actually drop both hands to his sides and give his arms a desperately needed rest after twenty minutes of intense, nonstop effort. Better yet, the sandstone above his head was pocked with a series of Swiss cheese-like holes that looked big enough to accept his fingers to a depth of half an inch or more. Perilous Journey seemed to be a fait accompli.

When Breashears reached up and felt the lowest of the pockmarks, however, he was alarmed to discover that it was much smoother and shallower than it had appeared from below. He reached higher, and then higher still, but none of the holes p rovided the kind of handhold he was willing to trust his life to. He was four stories off the ground. A slip from this point would send him hurtling into the boulders below.

The gravity of his circumstances inspired him to redouble his concentration. A more thorough examination of the wall overhead turned up a rounded, jelly bean-size blister that he could wrap two fingertips around. Awkwardly reaching across his body until his right hand was above his left shoulder, he clenched the jelly bean, levered his body upward, and stretched as far to the left as he could. He smeared the soles of his boots onto a nearly featureless patch of sandstone, shifted his weight onto his left foot, and thereby managed to touch a small scoop that was slightly deeper than the other pockmarks were, and had a tiny ridge across its lower lip on which he could hook the callused pad of a fingertip. Twenty inches above this pathetic hold was a substantial ledge. Committing his life to the tips of two fingers on his left hand, he cranked for all he was worth, snaked his right hand up to the ledge, and wrapped his paws securely around its reassuring contours. A glance overhead revealed that the rest of the route was covered with large, in-cut holds. Within minutes he stood triumphantly atop Perilous Journey.

It was a visionary ascent, one of the boldest achievements in the annals of North American mountaineering, done in impeccable style. A handful of other climbs of comparable difficulty existed, but seldom, if ever, had such extreme difficulties been undertaken in circumstances where the climber was unlikely to survive a fall. Yet, to nobody's surprise, Breashears wasn't hounded by journalists for interviews. No mention of Perilous Journey appeared in any newspaper, local or otherwise. He received no remuneration or formal recognition of any kind. Word of the climb, however, filtered gradually through the mountaineering grapevine. His ascent was reenacted in pantomime, move by move, in climbers' camps from Yosemite to the Tetons to the Shawangunks of New York. He had achieved something he valued much more than wealth or fame: the respect and admiration of his peers.

In writing this foreword, my intent is not to nominate Breashears for sainthood. I have spent enough time in his proximity to know that he is impatient, driven, incredibly tightly wound. I have witnessed his explosive temper; indeed I have felt the sting of it firsthand. But he possesses, in abundance, a quality perhaps best described as "character." And I admire this trait even more than I admire what he has achieved in the arenas of film and mountaineering. Although I have disagreed with him both publicly and privately, I have always been impressed with his willingness to act on his convictions -- even when his ire has been directed at me.

Two decades after I first met David Breashears on a crag above Boulder, chance brought us together again on the slopes of Everest during what turned out to be a very bad season. When disaster struck, he placed the most important film project of his career in jeopardy, without hesitation, in order to provide assistance to those of us who were in trouble. That the creator of Perilous Journey emerged as one of the heroes of the 1996 Everest calamity came as no surprise to me.

Jon Krakauer
Boulder, Colorado
February 1999

Copyright © 1999 by David Breashears

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High Exposure; an Enduring Passion for Everest and Unforgiving Places 4.1 out of 5 based on 0 ratings. 13 reviews.
smg626 on LibraryThing More than 1 year ago
This story of an Everest expedition gives the more graphic details of the fatalities that beset the May 1996 crew. David's film team saw many climbers (and Sherpas) that died in attemps to climb and descend the mountain. He also gives accounts of returning to the mountain a year later to retrieve items from the body of friends. One erie account tells of retrieving a camera from the still attached backpack of his friend, Bruce, which afterwards a crew member cuts the cord that allows Bruce's body to disappear into the abyss. Many who have read this particular account find it hard to believe that with the deadly storm, David's crew survived. As an Alex Award winner in 2000, this book has great appeal to young mountaineers.
FireandIce on LibraryThing More than 1 year ago
While reading this book I came to respect David Breashears, but I just couldn't bring myself to like him. This autobiography recounts his troubled childhood, his romance with the mountains, his introduction to film-making, and some of the incredible events of his life. Somewhere along the line, he ends up portraying himself not as a mountaineering purist with a serious belief in safety, but rather as a condescending control freak. That's where he kind of lost me. I found the chapters regarding the '96 tragedy on Everest to be the most interesting, but I still feel that Jon Krakauer's narrative was more engaging.
dcoward on LibraryThing More than 1 year ago
This book is a cut above most climbing memoirs. In many memoirs by people who have lived interesting lives but might not be natural writers, I find myself nodding off when they turn to their childhood, or, in climbing memoirs, the details of each climb they've ever taken. This was not a problem with Breashears' book, which also gives his own balanced glimse of the 1996 Everest disaster chronicled in "Into Thin Air".
amerynth on LibraryThing More than 1 year ago
David Breashears has made a name for himself as a methodical climber -- he isn't into dynamic leaps and jumps, but carefully plans each and every move as he scales mountain and rock. In a way, his autobiography "High Exposure: An Enduring Passion for Everest and Unforgiving Places" is the same. It's almost plodding and Breashears thoroughly examines his troubled childhood and the reasons that he is driven again and again to the challenges presented by Everest. I've read a lot of climbing memoirs and this one didn't particularly thrill me-- it was a little too bogged down in detail and became a really slow read. The final chapters about the 1996 tragedy on Mt. Everest were better, but came too late for me to truly enjoy the book. I came away admiring Breashers for what he has overcome but with a sense that he is a very unlikeable person. Is it possible for an autobiography to be too honest? That may be the problem in this case.
Jen42 on LibraryThing More than 1 year ago
I read this because of my interest in Everest after reading The Lost Explorer and Ghosts of Everest. This is a broader book, in that it is about more than Everest, but it is a great read and a fascinating look into the mind of a climber.
beau.p.laurence on LibraryThing More than 1 year ago
one of the several autobiographies from the deadliest season of Mt Everest ever. this one is by the man who created the IMAX film "Everest" who actually abandoned his filming to help in rescues efforts (and who then returned the following year to finish the film). interesting both as a travelogue and an autobiography, as Breashears writes about his own urge to return to the place that killed so many others, essentially while he watched.
Anonymous More than 1 year ago
Guest More than 1 year ago
Have you ever wanted the experience of climbing Mount Everest? Well now you can, without even having to step outside. In this memoir High Exposure, David Breashears shares life experience from his early ages in Cheyenne, Wyoming leading up to his career as an Everest Imax movie director. David¿s childhood had it¿s up¿s and down¿s. Overall, since David¿s father was in the military David received some pretty tough love from him. At times he had a good childhood but once his father started fighting with his mom, his whole life changed from a loving father to his dad being one of his least favorite people. For example, one time his father threw him into a pool and ordered him to swim back, and when he did his dad just bent down towards the pool, grabbed David, and threw him right back to the other side and told him to swim back. When David was a kid he would walk around Wyoming and look for rocks to climb, and a couple of times he even found ice to climb. What really made him so determined to climb Mount Everest is one picture of a famous mountaineer whose name was Tenzing Norgay, one of the most famous persons ever to climb Mt. Everest. From that time on in David¿s life, Tenzing Norgay was his idle. That one picture changed David¿s whole perspective of being a mountain climber. I actually felt like I was on the mountain. When David writes about the tragic events on Mount Everest in 1996 he talks about how on May 10 eight people perished, which made that day one of the most famous days of Mt. Everest history. The editor of the memoir Jon Krakauer successfully reached the summit on that horrific day of extreme weather on Mt. Everest. Also on May 10, 1996 David Breashears shot an Imax film of Everest, which almost costed him his life. If you would like to find out more about David Breashears experience on Mt. Everest, than I strongly recommend reading High Exposure.
Guest More than 1 year ago
David Breashears has summited Mount Everest four times by the South Col route, and has twice attempted (each) both the North Col route and the Kangshung Face. He's among the few late 20th Century Western climbers to make a career, a successful one, out of his enduring passion for the Himalayas and other such unforgiving places. Although his book uses the 1996 Everest disaster as its framework, it's actually the author's autobiography. What creates in a human being the hunger for challenges of the sort that extreme climbing involves? According to David Breashears, who ought to know, mountaineering is about self-discovery. It's also about independence, and ultimate self-reliance. As he tells the story of his boyhood, the reader comes to understand what shaped this particular man to value those things so highly. He's honest about himself, at times almost brutally so and therefore, what he has to say about the events of 1996 (which he witnessed, and participated in during the rescue phase) rings with total authenticity.
Guest More than 1 year ago
High Exposure is an autobiography by David Breashears about his life of mountain climbing and photography. After seeing a picture of Tenzing Norgay, the first person to reach the summit of Mount Everest, he became very interested in climbing and began his training at the age of twelve. David would later become acquainted with the camera and start his adventurous journey that he would pursue the rest of his life. Breashears gives a lot of reflections on the tragedies of mountain climbing, but he also emphasizes the triumph, passion, and technical aspects of elite mountaineering. Nevertheless all books have their ups and downs. Often, Breashears became too technical in his writing. He added far too many details that, in turn made it boring and hard to read if you don¿t know a lot about climbing or photography. Because of the autobiography format, his writing style was plainly straightforward, making it easy reading without twists and turns. Which could result to be both good and bad at the same time. For the most part, Breashears sentences were fluid with the right composition of details and of literary devices, which was fun and interesting to read. For anyone interested in mountain climbing or if you want to read a good autobiography, High Exposure is for you. - Robert Prigge
Guest More than 1 year ago
High Exposure by David Breashear, is about his life experiences that indulged him into attempting and doing the impossible. Breashear¿s passion for mountain climbing and hiking is described through his adventures in Colorado, Tibet and other parts of the world. Breasher¿s book is really good for people who are interested in reading inspirational books. David describes how he pushed his mind, body, and soul to its limits through his hikes and climbs around the world. One thing about High Exposure that wasn¿t eye catching dealt with David¿s childhood and what influenced him to climb. In his book he explains what made him develop a passion for climbing but with little detail. It makes the reader wonder why didn¿t he use the amount of detail described in his experience across Tibet? Overall the book was very motivational. After reading the book, you¿ll just want to overcome any obstacle in life.
Guest More than 1 year ago
David Breashears proves that he can write as well as his climbing and filming. Mr. Breashears takes you though his hard childhood all the way to standing on top of the world for the fourth time in 1997. Mr. Breashears was just a normal person who gave his life to mountaineering. There was nothing boring about this book. Through his book I learned what I've heard so many times. To be on Everest you have to be prepared. That's how you learn the respect of vertern climbers like Mr. Breashears. He was one of the few climbers who gave credit to the hero on Everest in 1996. Saying he single handly saved lives on that stormy night. Mr. Breashears had to deal with alot on that mountain. His friends and fellow climbers were dying up ahead. The sorrow he felt we won't understand.I felt his tears as he listened to Rob Hall talk to to his wife he would never see again. He heard Mr. Hall name his child,he would never see and say his last words. This books takes you as close to the Everest 1996 tragedy that you'll ever get. I understand why Mr. Breashears had to go back to Everest to put some kind of ending to the Everest tragedy. Who wouldn't? For me I became interested in mountaineering because of Mr. Breashears IMAX video. Now I have goals of summits of some of the highest mountains on earth. He made me want to train harder so I will be ready to climb Everest. He brought me closer to the mountains. If it wasn't for Mr. Breashears I would have never fallen in love with Everest. Thank you from the bottem of my heart Mr. Breashears, for giving me a goal and inspiring me!
Guest More than 1 year ago
Inspiring, exhilerating, thought provoking, honest, and worth the wait. Breashears is not perfect, but his faults and frailties allowed him to write an honest and insightful book free of bravado. An elite mountaineer with the ability to inspire and the oppotunity and courage to share his considerable talents with others. Sounds like an all around good guy.