Impact Of Birthing Practices On Breastfeeding

Impact Of Birthing Practices On Breastfeeding

by Linda J. Smith, Mary Kroeger

Paperback(2E)

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Overview


This text examines the research and evidence connecting birth practices to breastfeeding outcomes. It takes an in-depth look at the post-birth experiences of the mother and baby, using the baby's health as the vehicle and the intact mother-baby dyad as the model to address birth practices that affect breastfeeding.

The Second Edition has been completely revised to include new information on infant outcomes, including epidural anesthesia and Cesarean surgery, clinical strategies for helping the mother and baby recover from birth injuries, medications and complications, and information on Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiatives with a Mother-Friendly Module.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780763763749
Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Learning
Publication date: 09/24/2009
Edition description: 2E
Pages: 248
Product dimensions: 6.00(w) x 8.90(h) x 0.50(d)

About the Author


Director, Bright Future Lactation Resource Centre, Dayton, Ohio

Table of Contents

Foreword Nils Bergman vii

Foreword Michel Odent ix

Foreword Johanna Bergerman xiii

Foreword Diane Wiessinger xv

Introduction to the Second Edition xix

Acknowledgments xxiii

Chapter 1 Historical Perspectives on Childbirth and Breastfeeding 1

The Location for Birth Matters: Home Birth and Institutional Delivery 2

The Natural Childbirth Movement in the West 3

La Leche League International 5

The Natural Childbirth Movement Grows 8

Breastfeeding Rates Are Tracked Separately from Birth Outcomes 11

Global Perspective on Birth, Breastfeeding, and Maternal and Infant Survival 14

Safe Motherhood and Other Initiatives 18

Professional Responsibility for Breastfeeding Success 22

Innocenti Declarations of 1990 and 2005: Call to Action 23

Back to...the Future 24

References 25

Chapter 2 Evidence-Based Practice in Perinatal Care 29

Informed Consent 30

What Evidence Really Counts? 30

Challenges of Research on Childbirth and Lactation 32

Resources for Evidence-Based Maternity Care 33

Evidence-Based Breastfeeding Practices 37

The Politics of Research 38

Oxytocin, "The Love Hormone" 39

Technology: Overuse and Underuse 41

Breaking Through the Cul-de-Sac 43

Interventions Can Cascade 44

Research Gaps Still Exist 46

Summary Points for Evidence-Based Practice in Perinatal Care 46

References 46

Chapter 3 Companion(s) of the Mother's Choice 49

Background 50

Labor Support and Birth Outcomes 52

Labor Support and Breastfeeding Outcomes 54

Labor Support in Resource-Poor Settings 57

Staff Acceptance or Resistance to Labor Companions 58

Labor Companions and Training Programs 60

Summary Points for Companion(s) of the Mother's Choice61

References 63

Chapter 4 Cascade of Interventions: Physics, Forces, and Mechanics 65

Nerves and Muscles Control Movement 68

Cranial Bones Surround the Developing Infant Brain 70

Mechanical Forces and Instruments During Birth 77

Physics and Forces During Cesarean Delivery 81

Muscle Responses and Mispatterning 82

Effect of Analgesia and Anesthesia on Nerve Function 83

Implications of Poor Suck-Swallow-Breathe 85

Conclusions 87

Summary Points for Cascade of Interventions: Physics, Forces, and Mechanics 88

References 91

Chapter 5 Cascade of Interventions: Chance or Choice? The "Seduction of Induction" 97

Predictability in Parturition 98

Outcomes of Labor Induction 100

Effects on Breastfeeding 102

Practice Implications 102

Summary Points for Cascade of Interventions: Chance or Choice 103

References 104

Chapter 6 Modifiable Labor Influences: Freely Move About, or "Gravity Works" 107

Background 107

Position in the First Stage of Labor 110

Position During the Second Stage of Labor 110

Electronic Fetal Monitoring 113

Maternal Labor Position in Childbirth Around the World 114

Conclusions 115

Summary Points for Modifiable Labor Influences: Freely Move About, or "Gravity Works" 116

References 117

Chapter 7 Modifiable Labor Influences: Eat and Drink, or "Labor Is Work" 121

Why Is Nutrition and Oral Hydration During Labor Still Controversial? 122

Effects of IV Hydration on Maternal Stress, Breast Edema, and Lactogenesis 124

Effects of IV Hydration on Infant Status, Ability to Feed, and Risk of Supplementation 126

Other Effects of IV Hydration and Caloric Restriction in Labor 127

Glohal Aspects of Hydration in Labor 127

Conclusions 128

Summary Points for Modifiable Labor Influences: Eat and Drink, or "Labor Is Work" 128

References 130

Chapter 8 Modifiable Labor Influences: Labor Pain Management 137

Background 137

Effect of Labor Drugs on the Infant 138

Effect of Labor Drugs on Maternal Physiology and Breastfeeding Initiation 143

Labor Pain Relief and Medication Use Around the World 144

Nonpharmacologic Pain Relief Strategies 145

Conclusions 146

Summary Points for Modifiable Labor Influences: Labor Pain Management 147

References 148

Chapter 9 Modifiable Birth Influences: Surgery and Trauma 153

Cesarean Surgery 156

Birth Injuries to the Mother and Baby 160

Adrenalin Versus Oxytocin: Fear, Stress, and Hormone Effects 166

Labor Stress and Lactogenesis 168

Postpartum Bleeding 169

Long-Term Effects of Birth Interventions 171

Natural Protections Against Stress for Mother and Baby 171

Cumulative Stresses from Induction, Epidural Anesthesia, and Surgery 172

Summary Points for Modifiable Birth Influences: Surgery and Trauma 176

References 181

Chapter 10 Restoration and Recovery 189

Immediate and Sustained Skin-to-Skin Contact 189

Risk of Separation, Pain, and Newborn Procedures That Affect Feeding 193

Risks of Supplements 198

The ABC Protocol: Access, Breastmilk Transfer, Maternal Comfort 199

BFHI: Policies That Protect, Promote, and Support the Birth-Breastfeeding Continuum 202

The BFHI's Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding 205

Public Health Implications 207

Summary Points for Restoration and Recovery 210

References 212

Appendix: Resources 221

Index 233

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