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World Bank Publications
Improving Transparency, Integrity, and Accountability in Water Supply and Sanitation: Action, Learning, Experiences

Improving Transparency, Integrity, and Accountability in Water Supply and Sanitation: Action, Learning, Experiences


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This volume will serve as a useful tool for those who wish to diagnose, analyze, and take action against systemic corruption in the water and sanitation sectors. On a global scale, more than 1 billion people live without access to safe, potable water, in part because of poor governance and corruption. Illegal connections and substantial losses caused by deferred maintenance have eroded the revenues of water utilities, leading to a downward spiral in performance. Embezzlement of funds, bribes for access to illegal water connections, manipulation of meter counters, and collusion in public contracts add to the litany of corrupt practices. This manual will serve as a practical guide for governments, civil society organizations, and citizens themselves in their quest for a model of service provision that responds to the pressing needs of people in the developing world.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780821378922
Publisher: World Bank Publications
Publication date: 04/22/2009
Pages: 200
Product dimensions: 6.90(w) x 9.90(h) x 0.60(d)

Table of Contents

Foreword xi

Preface xv

Acknowledgments xvii

About the Authors xix

Abbreviations xxi

Module 1 The Nature of Corruption in the Water Sector 1

1 Introduction 3

2 Context 6

3 What Is Corruption? 12

4 Case Study: Corruption in the Water Sector in South Asia 19

5 A Framework for Analyzing Corruption 28

6 Impact of Corruption 36

7 Sector Restructuring and Corruption 39

8 Concluding Activity 43

Notes 44

Module 2 Diagnosing Corruption in the Water Sector: Tools and Impact Indicators 45

1 Introduction 47

2 Overview of Tools and Instruments 50

3 External Diagnostic Tools 54

4 Internal Diagnostic Tools 63

5 The Role of Regulatory Authorities 77

6 Concluding Activity 80

Notes 81

Module 3 Tools for Addressing Corruption in the Water and Sanitation Sector 83

1 Introduction 85

2 Identifying the Right Tools 87

3 Selected Tools 90

4 Concluding Activity 119

Notes 120

Module 4 Case Studies in Addressing Corruption in the Water and Sanitation Sector 121

1 Introduction 123

2 Phnom Water Supply Authority: Cambodia 126

3 Promoting Transparency in the Panama Canal Authority, the Largest Water Company in Panama 131

4 The Public Utilities Board in Singapore 135

Notes 140

Module 5 Action Planning to Address Corruption and Improve Transparency, Accountability, and Access to Information in the Water Sector 141

1 Introduction 143

2 Context 145

3 Developing an Action Plan 151

4 Concluding Activity 158

Notes 159

References 161

Index 165


1.1 Common Forms of Corruption 12

1.2 Klitgaard's Corruption Formula 16

1.3 Is Petty Corruption Really "Petty"? An Illustration from the Power Sector in Bangladesh 22

2.1 TheUse of Citizen Report Cards in Bangalore, India 57

2.2 Participatory Corruption Appraisal in Indonesia 59

2.3 Examples of Questions Covered in a Utility Checklist 64

2.4 Examples of Questions Covered in a Vulnerability Assessment 67

2.5 Benchmarking: Service and Performance Indicators 69

2.6 Benchmarking: Efficiency and Financial Indicators 70

2.7 Benchmarking: Process Indicators 72

3.1 Using India's Right to Information Act to Enforce Rights to Water and Sanitation 93

3.2 Example: The Importance of Site Selection and Targeting as a Tool in Malawi 98

3.3 Example: Improving Transparency at Large Facilities, Kerala, India 99

3.4 Examples: Results of Citizens' Action Promoted by WaterAid in Asia 102

3.5 Example: Citizens' Voice in South Africa 103

3.6 Participatory Budgeting in Brazil 105

3.7 Example: Money Diverted from Education in Uganda 108

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