Introduction to Passive Radar

Introduction to Passive Radar

Hardcover

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Overview

Developed by recognized experts in the field, this first-of-its-kind resource introduces the basic principles of passive radar technology and provides an overview of recent developments in this field and existing real passive radar systems. This book explains how passive radar works, how it differs from the active type, and demonstrates the benefits and drawbacks of this novel technology. Properties of illuminators, including ambiguity functions, digital vs. analog, digitally-coded waveforms, vertical-plane coverage, and satellite-borne and radar illuminators are explored.

Readers find practical guidance on direct signal suppression, passive radar performance prediction, and detection and tracking. This book provides concrete examples of systems and results, including analog TV, FM radio, cell phone base stations, DVB—T and DAB, HF skywave transmissions, indoor WiFi, satellite-borne illuminators, and low-cost scientific remote sensing. Future developments and applications of passive radar are also presented.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781630810368
Publisher: Artech House, Incorporated
Publication date: 02/28/2017
Pages: 234
Sales rank: 1,032,586
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 9.20(h) x 0.70(d)

About the Author

Hugh D. Griffiths hold the THALES/Royal Academy Chair of RF Sensors at University College London, UK. He received his Ph.D. and his D.Sc. Eng from University College London. He received his MA degree in physics from Oxford University, UK.

Christopher J. Baker is chief technology officer with Aveillant Ltd. in Cambridge, UK. Previously he was the Ohio Research Scholar in Integrated Sensor Systems at Ohio State University. He received his Ph.D. and B.Sc. in applied physics from the University of Hull, UK.

Table of Contents

Foreword 9

Preface 13

1 Introduction 15

1.1 Terminology 15

1.2 History 18

1.3 Approach and Scope 25

References 26

2 Principles of Passive Radar 29

2.1 Introduction 29

2.2 Bistatic and Multistatic Geometry 30

2.2.1 Coverage 33

2.2.2 Direct Signal Suppression 33

2.3 Bistatic Range and Doppler 34

2.3.1 Range Measurement 35

2.3.2 Range Resolution 36

2.3.3 Doppler Measurement 38

2.3.4 Doppler Resolution 39

2.4 Multistatic Passive Radar Range and Doppler 42

2.5 Multistatic Target Location 44

2.6 The Bistatic Radar Range Equation 45

2.7 Bistatic Target and Clutter Signatures 48

2.8 Summary 55

References 55

3 Properties of Illuminators 57

3.1 Ambiguity Functions 57

3.1.1 The Ambiguity Function in Bistatic Radar 58

3.1.2 Bandwidth Extension with FM Radio Signals 62

3.2 Digital Versus Analog 63

3.2.1 Analog Television Signals 63

3.2.2 Mismatched Filtering 65

3.3 Digitally Coded Waveforms 66

3.3.1 OFDM 67

3.3.2 Global System for Mobile Communications 68

3.3.3 Long-Term Evolution 69

3.3.4 Terrestrial Digital Television 71

3.3.5 WiFi and WiMAX 76

3.3.6 Digital Radio Mondiale 78

3.4 Vertical-Plane Coverage 78

3.5 Satellite-Borne Illuminators 80

3.5.1 Global Navigation Satellite System 81

3.5.2 Satellite TV 82

3.5.3 INMARSAT 82

3.5.4 IRIDIUM 84

3.5.5 Low Earth Orbit Radar Remote-Sensing Satellites 84

3.6 Radar Illuminators 85

3.7 Summary 88

References 89

4 Direct Signal Suppression 95

4.1 Introduction 95

4.2 Direct Signal Interference Power Levels 97

4.3 Direct Signal Suppression 100

4.4 Summary 108

References 108

5 Passive Radar Performance Prediction 111

5.1 Introduction 111

5.2 Detection Performance Prediction Parameters 112

5.2.1 Transmit Power 112

5.2.2 Target Bistatic Radar Cross-Section 113

5.2.3 Receiver Noise Figure 114

5.2.4 Integration Gain 116

5.2.5 System Losses 117

5.3 Detection Performance Prediction 118

5.4 Comparing Predicted and Experimental Detection Performance 123

5.5 Target Location 124

5.6 Advanced Passive Radar Performance Prediction 125

5.7 Summary 125

References 126

6 Detection and Tracking 129

6.1 Introduction 129

6.2 CFAR Detection 130

6.3 Target Location Estimation 132

6.3.1 Iso-Range Ellipses 132

6.3.2 Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA) 134

6.3.3 Range-Doppler Plots 136

6.4 Track Filtering 137

6.4.1 Kalman Filter 139

6.4.2 Probability Hypothesis Density Tracking 141

6.4.3 Multireceiver Passive Tracking 142

6.5 Summary 143

References 145

7 Examples of Systems and Results 147

7.1 Introduction 147

7.2 Analog Television 147

7.3 FM Radio 148

7.3.1 Silent Sentry 148

7.3.2 The Manastash Ridge Radar 149

7.3.3 More Recent Experiments Using FM Radio Illuminators 151

7.3.4 Summary 152

7.4 Cell Phone Ease Stations 152

7.5 DVB-T and DAB 153

7.6 Airborne Passive Radar 153

7.7 HF Sky wave Transmissions 158

7.8 Indoor/WiFi 163

7.9 Satellite-Borne Illuminators 166

7.9.1 Early Experiments Using GPS and Forward Scatter 166

7.9.2 Geostationary Satellites 167

7.9.3 Bistatic SAR 167

7.9.4 Bistatic ISAR 168

7.9.5 Summary 169

7.10 Low-Cost Scientific Remote Sensing 169

7.10.1 Ocean Scatterometry Using GNSS Signals 169

7.10.2 Terrestrial Bistatic Weather Radar 171

7.10.3 Planetary Radar Remote Sensing 172

7.11 Summary 173

References 173

8 Future Developments and Applications 181

8.1 Introduction 181

8.2 The Spectrum Problem and Commensal Radar 181

8.2.1 The Spectrum Problem 181

8.2.2 Commensal Radar 182

8.3 Passive Radar in Air Traffic Management 183

8.4 Countermeasures Against Passive Radar 185

8.4.1 Countermeasures 185

8.4.2 Bistatic Denial 186

8.5 Target Recognition and Passive Radar 186

8.6 Eldercare and Assisted Living 191

8.7 Low-Cost Passive Radar 193

8.8 The Intelligent Adaptive Radar Network 195

8.9 Conclusions 196

References 196

Bibliography 199

About the Authors 203

Index 205

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