ISBN-10:
0201498650
ISBN-13:
9780201498653
Pub. Date:
08/23/1999
Publisher:
Pearson
Manufacturing Process and Equipment / Edition 1

Manufacturing Process and Equipment / Edition 1

by George Tlusty, Jiri Tlusty
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Overview

Manufacturing Engineering describes and explains existing production processes and machinery. More importantly, it uses the powerful analytical tools of machine science (heat transfer, vibrations, control theory) and applies them to the solution of manufacturing problems. There is more emphasis on the analytical development and application of engineering theory to manufacturing problems and readers are encouraged to generate their own computer solutions to gain understanding. Includes chapters on machine tools and other production equipment discussing the aspects of performance and design of drives, structures, and controls. For anyone interested in Manufacturing Processes.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780201498653
Publisher: Pearson
Publication date: 08/23/1999
Edition description: New Edition
Pages: 960
Sales rank: 937,559
Product dimensions: 8.00(w) x 9.90(h) x 1.80(d)

About the Author

GEORGE TLUSTY is a Graduate Research Professor at the University of Florida where he is Director of the Machine Tool Research Center. He has been very active in all segments of machine tool research since the 1950s. Professor Tlusty's current activities include the development of techniques and machines for High Speed milling of aluminum aircraft parts done in conjunction with McDonnell Douglas (now Boeing) and further HS milling of hardened steel parts. He has written two other books and published over 100 research papers. He is a Founding Member and Past President of NAMRI, Fellow of ASME, Fellow of SME, and Registered Professional Engineer of Ontario. Professor Tlusty received the Czechoslovak State Prize of 1954, the 1979 SME Gold Medal, 1980 ASME Centennial Medallion, 1990 ASME Blackall Award and the 1997 ASME W.T. Ennor Manufacturing Technology Award.

Read an Excerpt

Preface

I spent the first half of my professional life as designer and researcher in the machine tool industry in Europe. In 19711 emigrated to Canada and joined the mechanical engineering faculty at McMaster University in the heavily industrial town of Hamilton, Ontario. While my primary theoretical background was in structural dynamics and controls, I also taught elasticity and plasticity, design, analytical methods, and heat transfer. However, my main responsibility was for the required course in Manufacturing Engineering (MfgE).

At that time there were a number of very good textbooks in MfgE available. I used Doyle et al., Manufacturing Processes and Materials for Engineers. It was an excellent comprehensive collection of descriptions of techniques, materials, processes, and machines including wellselected illustrations, accompanied by qualitative judgments. Several other books were similar. However, there was very little analytical development of the subjects and no connection or relationship was established between existing books and the traditional mechanical engineering textbooks on vibrations, controls, heat transfer, etc. On the other hand, those other "machine science" courses contained very little physical interpretation and application material that might help to better understand MfgE. Why should the students learn all of the theory if they were not shown that it was useful or needed in the vast and significant field of manufacturing engineering?

MfgE was at that time not scientifically esteemed or well developed, and many of the teachers concentrated their lectures on little more than "shop practice:" Since then the situation has changed: There is now a large academic community engaged in extensive research in MfgE. The profile of the teachers has changed substantially and I am happy to have been heavily involved in that transition. Back then, however, I began to write analytical notes as handouts to complement the textbook in my teaching of the course. At the same time I started to learn about computational approaches to solve many of the problems and included them in my teaching. I continued the practice after moving to the University of Florida in 1984, where I met colleagues who joined me in using these handouts in teaching the MfgE course. I continued developing the material that finally was condensed to become the book presented here.

It is important to teach students how to formulate problems in MfgE and to show them how to use all the knowledge gained in the specialty background courses to solve these problems. This belief stems from my experience as an industrial researcher and is also based on the 28 years of teaching the topic, giving homework assignments and exams based on analytical exercises, and finding favorable acceptance by the students. It is not enough to simply include large numbers of ready-made equations with little or no analytical development in otherwise descriptive texts on Mfg processes, as has been done by several authors. If the students do not understand how a formula has been obtained they will not be able to use it. It is necessary to present derivations in some detail and to involve the students in developing the corresponding computer programs. This enables them to creatively use other new theoretical and computational approaches to problems that will challenge them in their future work as production engineers.

What is the essence of this book, and in what ways is it novel and different from the others on the market? One-half of its mission is to describe and explain existing production processes and machinery whereas the other half is to show how to use the powerful analytical tools of machine science and apply them to the solution of manufacturing problems to further development of the state of the art. In comparison with other books, there is more emphasis on analytical development and application of engineering theory to MfgE problems. This book is unique in its inclusion of computer solutions to these problems. Methods of heat transfer are used in analysing thermal fields in chip and tool in machining and in the zone around the arc in welding. Plasticity is applied to metal forming, fluid flow to plastics processing. Metrology and vibrations theory are applied to machine tool design and performance analysis. Control theory is used to understand computer control of machine tools as well as the behavior of the arc welding processes. Computer programs to be derived by the students are predominantly used rather than packaged software. So, for instance, students are shown how to write their own 1D transient and 2D steady-state (mite difference programs for the thermal field solutions. Matlab® general software is used throughout, but simulations of servo systems and of vibrations are created by the students from scratch instead of using Simulink Toolbox. The latter would, of course, be more comfortable and efficient but does not offer proper insight and could rather be used in future work once the student fully understands the problems.

This book is intended as an undergraduate textbook for mechanical and industrial engineers. In the typical undergraduate curriculum, the MfgE course as well as that in Engineering Design are the two applied engineering courses closely related to the work the student will perform after graduation. It is useful to present them in the junior/ senior years for recapitulating and summarizing material that the student has learned earlier. I and my colleagues have successfully used the precursor notes in a senior level MfgE course. The book assumes some prerequisite theoretical knowledge and does not derive common formulations such as Mohr's circles or the Laplace transform or the Nyquist theorem. On the other hand, most of the prerequisite material is briefly reviewed, such as basics of vibrations and first-order control systems. The mathematical level is restricted to such general skills as differential equations with constant coefficients, systems of linear equations (Gauss-Seidel), Euler-type integration, etc. For field problems, finite difference and not finite elements are used, since the latter is not yet universal in the ME curricula.

More than any other textbook available, this book includes chapters on machine tools and other production equipment, discussing the aspects of performance and design of drives, structures, and controls. For example, while a positional servo system should have been fully explained in a previous course on controls, the inclusion of a structural spring mass system in the loop, which is specifically important for machine tools, is treated here showing the use of both feedback and feedforward compensations. It is essential for today's students to learn about production machinery. Looking back at the development of productivity in the 20th century, more than half of its increase was due to improvements and automation of equipment rather than to modifications of the techniques and conditions of the processes and advances in tool materials and geometries. The fresh graduate will very likely be up to the task when asked to specify, select, install, and efficiently utilize new investments in equipment.

Although this book concentrates on the traditional processes of forming, cutting, assembly, and welding and the corresponding equipment, the related topics of manufacturing management as well as the prerequisite topics of materials, primary metallurgical processes, and the more specialized nontraditional processes are included, although in a more descriptive, nonanalytical way. The book does not seek to be encyclopedic or a comprehensive handbook. Instead, such aspects of the various processes have been selected and analyzed in more detailed ways that are most significant in each of them. So, for instance, instead of dwelling on the chip formation mechanism to try to derive the cutting force, an empirical approach is chosen based on extensive experimental data, and more attention is given to the understanding of the temperatures on the tool face— one of the decisive factors in the core problem of tool wear in the process of metal cutting. In another instance, for structures of machine tools, both forced and selfexcited vibrations are discussed. For welding, the arc welding process is chosen and the control of the arc as well as the temperature field around the pool and the resulting residual stresses and distortions are dealt with. Encouraged by the reviewers of the manuscript, I look forward to a sympathetic reception of the concept of the book.

Teaching This Course

Some potential users of this book might doubt whether it is possible to cover all this material in a one-semester course of 13 weeks, 3 hours per week, a typical volume for a general MfgE course in many MechEng curricula. My colleagues S. Smith, J. Schuller, J. Ziegert, and I have done so for the past 16 years using the notes that have become this book.

We assign 12 homework sets (each with two or three problems, many based on computing) selected from the Problems sections at the end of Chapters 5-6 and 8-11, plus a few items from the Questions sections that appear in every chapter. We give one midterm and one final examination, each including four or five problems that do not require the use of computers (although that may change in a few years when we have computer terminals in our examination rooms). The Teacher's Manual contains examples of the homework sets and the test problems.

We have found that students are quite capable of handling this course, with the usual grade distributions resulting. Over the years students have become more adept at computing, and they enjoy it. The computer exercises in the book are written in Matlab, but of course it is possible to use the same algorithms in any other language.

Finally, it is always up to the teacher to select which topics to cover from the wide selection presented.

Table of Contents



1. Manufacturing Management.


2. Engineering Materials and Their Properties.


3. Primary Metalworking.


4. Metal Forming Technology.


5. Metal Forming Mechanics.


6. Processing of Polymers.


7. Cutting Technology.


8. Cutting Mechanics.


9. Design of Machine Tools: Drives, and Structures.


10. Automation.


11. Assembly: Material Handling and Welding.


12. Non-Traditional Processes.

Preface

Preface

I spent the first half of my professional life as designer and researcher in the machine tool industry in Europe. In 19711 emigrated to Canada and joined the mechanical engineering faculty at McMaster University in the heavily industrial town of Hamilton, Ontario. While my primary theoretical background was in structural dynamics and controls, I also taught elasticity and plasticity, design, analytical methods, and heat transfer. However, my main responsibility was for the required course in Manufacturing Engineering (MfgE).

At that time there were a number of very good textbooks in MfgE available. I used Doyle et al., Manufacturing Processes and Materials for Engineers. It was an excellent comprehensive collection of descriptions of techniques, materials, processes, and machines including wellselected illustrations, accompanied by qualitative judgments. Several other books were similar. However, there was very little analytical development of the subjects and no connection or relationship was established between existing books and the traditional mechanical engineering textbooks on vibrations, controls, heat transfer, etc. On the other hand, those other "machine science" courses contained very little physical interpretation and application material that might help to better understand MfgE. Why should the students learn all of the theory if they were not shown that it was useful or needed in the vast and significant field of manufacturing engineering?

MfgE was at that time not scientifically esteemed or well developed, and many of the teachers concentrated their lectures on little more than "shop practice:" Since then the situation has changed: There is now a large academic community engaged in extensive research in MfgE. The profile of the teachers has changed substantially and I am happy to have been heavily involved in that transition. Back then, however, I began to write analytical notes as handouts to complement the textbook in my teaching of the course. At the same time I started to learn about computational approaches to solve many of the problems and included them in my teaching. I continued the practice after moving to the University of Florida in 1984, where I met colleagues who joined me in using these handouts in teaching the MfgE course. I continued developing the material that finally was condensed to become the book presented here.

It is important to teach students how to formulate problems in MfgE and to show them how to use all the knowledge gained in the specialty background courses to solve these problems. This belief stems from my experience as an industrial researcher and is also based on the 28 years of teaching the topic, giving homework assignments and exams based on analytical exercises, and finding favorable acceptance by the students. It is not enough to simply include large numbers of ready-made equations with little or no analytical development in otherwise descriptive texts on Mfg processes, as has been done by several authors. If the students do not understand how a formula has been obtained they will not be able to use it. It is necessary to present derivations in some detail and to involve the students in developing the corresponding computer programs. This enables them to creatively use other new theoretical and computational approaches to problems that will challenge them in their future work as production engineers.

What is the essence of this book, and in what ways is it novel and different from the others on the market? One-half of its mission is to describe and explain existing production processes and machinery whereas the other half is to show how to use the powerful analytical tools of machine science and apply them to the solution of manufacturing problems to further development of the state of the art. In comparison with other books, there is more emphasis on analytical development and application of engineering theory to MfgE problems. This book is unique in its inclusion of computer solutions to these problems. Methods of heat transfer are used in analysing thermal fields in chip and tool in machining and in the zone around the arc in welding. Plasticity is applied to metal forming, fluid flow to plastics processing. Metrology and vibrations theory are applied to machine tool design and performance analysis. Control theory is used to understand computer control of machine tools as well as the behavior of the arc welding processes. Computer programs to be derived by the students are predominantly used rather than packaged software. So, for instance, students are shown how to write their own 1D transient and 2D steady-state (mite difference programs for the thermal field solutions. Matlab® general software is used throughout, but simulations of servo systems and of vibrations are created by the students from scratch instead of using Simulink Toolbox. The latter would, of course, be more comfortable and efficient but does not offer proper insight and could rather be used in future work once the student fully understands the problems.

This book is intended as an undergraduate textbook for mechanical and industrial engineers. In the typical undergraduate curriculum, the MfgE course as well as that in Engineering Design are the two applied engineering courses closely related to the work the student will perform after graduation. It is useful to present them in the junior/ senior years for recapitulating and summarizing material that the student has learned earlier. I and my colleagues have successfully used the precursor notes in a senior level MfgE course. The book assumes some prerequisite theoretical knowledge and does not derive common formulations such as Mohr's circles or the Laplace transform or the Nyquist theorem. On the other hand, most of the prerequisite material is briefly reviewed, such as basics of vibrations and first-order control systems. The mathematical level is restricted to such general skills as differential equations with constant coefficients, systems of linear equations (Gauss-Seidel), Euler-type integration, etc. For field problems, finite difference and not finite elements are used, since the latter is not yet universal in the ME curricula.

More than any other textbook available, this book includes chapters on machine tools and other production equipment, discussing the aspects of performance and design of drives, structures, and controls. For example, while a positional servo system should have been fully explained in a previous course on controls, the inclusion of a structural spring mass system in the loop, which is specifically important for machine tools, is treated here showing the use of both feedback and feedforward compensations. It is essential for today's students to learn about production machinery. Looking back at the development of productivity in the 20th century, more than half of its increase was due to improvements and automation of equipment rather than to modifications of the techniques and conditions of the processes and advances in tool materials and geometries. The fresh graduate will very likely be up to the task when asked to specify, select, install, and efficiently utilize new investments in equipment.

Although this book concentrates on the traditional processes of forming, cutting, assembly, and welding and the corresponding equipment, the related topics of manufacturing management as well as the prerequisite topics of materials, primary metallurgical processes, and the more specialized nontraditional processes are included, although in a more descriptive, nonanalytical way. The book does not seek to be encyclopedic or a comprehensive handbook. Instead, such aspects of the various processes have been selected and analyzed in more detailed ways that are most significant in each of them. So, for instance, instead of dwelling on the chip formation mechanism to try to derive the cutting force, an empirical approach is chosen based on extensive experimental data, and more attention is given to the understanding of the temperatures on the tool face— one of the decisive factors in the core problem of tool wear in the process of metal cutting. In another instance, for structures of machine tools, both forced and selfexcited vibrations are discussed. For welding, the arc welding process is chosen and the control of the arc as well as the temperature field around the pool and the resulting residual stresses and distortions are dealt with. Encouraged by the reviewers of the manuscript, I look forward to a sympathetic reception of the concept of the book.

Teaching This Course

Some potential users of this book might doubt whether it is possible to cover all this material in a one-semester course of 13 weeks, 3 hours per week, a typical volume for a general MfgE course in many MechEng curricula. My colleagues S. Smith, J. Schuller, J. Ziegert, and I have done so for the past 16 years using the notes that have become this book.

We assign 12 homework sets (each with two or three problems, many based on computing) selected from the Problems sections at the end of Chapters 5-6 and 8-11, plus a few items from the Questions sections that appear in every chapter. We give one midterm and one final examination, each including four or five problems that do not require the use of computers (although that may change in a few years when we have computer terminals in our examination rooms). The Teacher's Manual contains examples of the homework sets and the test problems.

We have found that students are quite capable of handling this course, with the usual grade distributions resulting. Over the years students have become more adept at computing, and they enjoy it. The computer exercises in the book are written in Matlab, but of course it is possible to use the same algorithms in any other language.

Finally, it is always up to the teacher to select which topics to cover from the wide selection presented.

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