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NoSQL for Mere Mortals / Edition 1

NoSQL for Mere Mortals / Edition 1

by Dan Sullivan
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The Easy, Common-Sense Guide to Solving Real Problems with NoSQL

The Mere Mortals ® tutorials have earned worldwide praise as the clearest, simplest way to master essential database technologies. Now, there’s one for today’s exciting new NoSQL databases. NoSQL for Mere Mortals guides you through solving real problems with NoSQL and achieving unprecedented scalability, cost efficiency, flexibility, and availability.

Drawing on 20+ years of cutting-edge database experience, Dan Sullivan explains the advantages, use cases, and terminology associated with all four main categories of NoSQL databases: key-value, document, column family, and graph databases. For each, he introduces pragmatic best practices for building high-value applications. Through step-by-step examples, you’ll discover how to choose the right database for each task, and use it the right way.

Coverage includes

--Getting started: What NoSQL databases are, how they differ from relational databases, when to use them, and when not to Data management principles and design criteria: Essential knowledge for creating any database solution, NoSQL or relational

--Key-value databases: Gaining more utility from data structures

--Document databases: Schemaless databases, normalization and denormalization, mutable documents, indexing, and design patterns

--Column family databases: Google’s BigTable design, table design, indexing, partitioning, and Big Data

Graph databases: Graph/network modeling, design tips, query methods, and traps to avoid

Whether you’re a database developer, data modeler, database user, or student, learning NoSQL can open up immense new opportunities. As thousands of database professionals already know, For Mere Mortals is the fastest, easiest route to mastery.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780134023212
Publisher: Addison-Wesley
Publication date: 04/30/2015
Series: For Mere Mortals Series
Pages: 552
Product dimensions: 7.00(w) x 9.00(h) x 1.20(d)

About the Author

Dan Sullivan is a data architect and data scientist with more than 20 years of experience in business intelligence, machine learning, data mining, text mining, Big Data, data modeling, and application design. Dan’s project work has ranged from analyzing complex genomics and proteomics data to designing and implementing numerous database applications. His most recent work has focused on NoSQL database modeling, data analysis, cloud computing, text mining, and data integration in life sciences. Dan has extensive experience in relational database design and works regularly with NoSQL databases. Dan has presented and written extensively on NoSQL, cloud computing, analytics, data warehousing, and business intelligence. He has worked in many industries, including life sciences, financial services, oil and gas, manufacturing, health care, insurance, retail, power systems, telecommunications, pharmaceuticals, and publishing.

Table of Contents

Preface xxi

Introduction xxv


Chapter 1 Different Databases for Different Requirements 3

Relational Database Design 4

E-commerce Application 5

Early Database Management Systems 6

Flat File Data Management Systems 7

Organization of Flat File Data Management Systems 7

Random Access of Data 9

Limitations of Flat File Data Management Systems 9

Hierarchical Data Model Systems 12

Organization of Hierarchical Data Management Systems 12

Limitations of Hierarchical Data Management Systems 14

Network Data Management Systems 14

Organization of Network Data Management Systems 15

Limitations of Network Data Management Systems 17

Summary of Early Database Management Systems 17

The Relational Database Revolution 19

Relational Database Management Systems 19

Organization of Relational Database Management Systems 20

Organization of Applications Using Relational Database Management Systems 26

Limitations of Relational Databases 27

Motivations for Not Just/No SQL (NoSQL) Databases 29

Scalability 29

Cost 31

Flexibility 31

Availability 32

Summary 34

Case Study 35

Review Questions 36

References 37

Bibliography 37

Chapter 2 Variety of NoSQL Databases 39

Data Management with Distributed Databases 41

Store Data Persistently 41

Maintain Data Consistency 42

Ensure Data Availability 44

Consistency of Database Transactions 47

Availability and Consistency in Distributed Databases 48

Balancing Response Times, Consistency, and Durability 49

Consistency, Availability, and Partitioning: The CAP Theorem 51

ACID and BASE 54

ACID: Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, and Durability 54

BASE: Basically Available, Soft State, Eventually Consistent 56

Types of Eventual Consistency 57

Casual Consistency 57

Read-Your-Writes Consistency 57

Session Consistency 58

Monotonic Read Consistency 58

Monotonic Write Consistency 58

Four Types of NoSQL Databases 59

Key-Value Pair Databases 60

Keys 60

Values 64

Differences Between Key-Value and Relational Databases 65

Document Databases 66

Documents 66

Querying Documents 67

Differences Between Document and Relational Databases 68

Column Family Databases 69

Columns and Column Families 69

Differences Between Column Family and Relational Databases 70

Graph Databases 71

Nodes and Relationships 72

Differences Between Graph and Relational Databases 73

Summary 75

Review Questions 76

References 77

Bibliography 77


Chapter 3 Introduction to Key-Value Databases 81

From Arrays to Key-Value Databases 82

Arrays: Key Value Stores with Training Wheels 82

Associative Arrays: Taking Off the Training Wheels 84

Caches: Adding Gears to the Bike 85

In-Memory and On-Disk Key-Value Database: From Bikes to Motorized Vehicles 89

Essential Features of Key-Value Databases 91

Simplicity: Who Needs Complicated Data Models Anyway? 91

Speed: There Is No Such Thing as Too Fast 93

Scalability: Keeping Up with the Rush 95

Scaling with Master-Slave Replication 95

Scaling with Masterless Replication 98

Keys: More Than Meaningless Identifiers 103

How to Construct a Key 103

Using Keys to Locate Values 105

Hash Functions: From Keys to Locations 106

Keys Help Avoid Write Problems 107

Values: Storing Just About Any Data You Want 110

Values Do Not Require Strong Typing 110

Limitations on Searching for Values 112

Summary 114

Review Questions 115

References 116

Bibliography 116

Chapter 4 Key-Value Database Terminology 117

Key-Value Database Data Modeling Terms 118

Key 121

Value 123

Namespace 124

Partition 126

Partition Key 129

Schemaless 129

Key-Value Architecture Terms 131

Cluster 131

Ring 133

Replication 135

Key-Value Implementation Terms 137

Hash Function 137

Collision 138

Compression 139

Summary 141

Review Questions 141

References 142

Chapter 5 Designing for Key-Value Databases 143

Key Design and Partitioning 144

Keys Should Follow a Naming Convention 145

Well-Designed Keys Save Code 145

Dealing with Ranges of Values 147

Keys Must Take into Account Implementation Limitations 149

How Keys Are Used in Partitioning 150

Designing Structured Values 151

Structured Data Types Help Reduce Latency 152

Large Values Can Lead to Inefficient Read and Write Operations 155

Limitations of Key-Value Databases 159

Look Up Values by Key Only 160

Key-Value Databases Do Not Support Range Queries 161

No Standard Query Language Comparable to SQL for Relational Databases 161

Design Patterns for Key-Value Databases 162

Time to Live (TTL) Keys 163

Emulating Tables 165

Aggregates 166

Atomic Aggregates 169

Enumerable Keys 170

Indexes 171

Summary 173

Case Study: Key-Value Databases for Mobile Application Configuration 174

Review Questions 177

References 178


Chapter 6 Introduction to Document Databases 181

What Is a Document? 182

Documents Are Not So Simple After All 182

Documents and Key-Value Pairs 187

Managing Multiple Documents in Collections 188

Getting Started with Collections 188

Tips on Designing Collections 191

Avoid Explicit Schema Definitions 199

Basic Operations on Document Databases 201

Inserting Documents into a Collection 202

Deleting Documents from a Collection 204

Updating Documents in a Collection 206

Retrieving Documents from a Collection 208

Summary 210

Review Questions 210

References 211

Chapter 7 Document Database Terminology 213

Document and Collection Terms 214

Document 215

Documents: Ordered Sets of Key-Value Pairs 215

Key and Value Data Types 216

Collection 217

Embedded Document 218

Schemaless 220

Schemaless Means More Flexibility 221

Schemaless Means More Responsibility 222

Polymorphic Schema 223

Types of Partitions 224

Vertical Partitioning 225

Horizontal Partitioning or Sharding 227

Separating Data with Shard Keys 229

Distributing Data with a Partitioning Algorithm 230

Data Modeling and Query Processing 232

Normalization 233

Denormalization 235

Query Processor 235

Summary 237

Review Questions 237

References 238

Chapter 8 Designing for Document Databases 239

Normalization, Denormalization, and the Search for Proper Balance 241

One-to-Many Relations 242

Many-to-Many Relations 243

The Need for Joins 243

Executing Joins: The Heavy Lifting of Relational Databases 245

Executing Joins Example 247

What Would a Document Database Modeler Do? 248

The Joy of Denormalization 249

Avoid Overusing Denormalization 251

Just Say No to Joins, Sometimes 253

Planning for Mutable Documents 255

Avoid Moving Oversized Documents 258

The Goldilocks Zone of Indexes 258

Read-Heavy Applications 259

Write-Heavy Applications 260

Modeling Common Relations 261

One-to-Many Relations in Document Databases 262

Many-to-Many Relations in Document Databases 263

Modeling Hierarchies in Document Databases 265

Parent or Child References 265

Listing All Ancestors 266

Summary 267

Case Study: Customer Manifests 269

Embed or Not Embed? 271

Choosing Indexes 271

Separate Collections by Type? 272

Review Questions 273

References 273


Chapter 9 Introduction to Column Family Databases 277

In the Beginning, There Was Google BigTable 279

Utilizing Dynamic Control over Columns 280

Indexing by Row, Column Name, and Time Stamp 281

Controlling Location of Data 282

Reading and Writing Atomic Rows 283

Maintaining Rows in Sorted Order 284

Differences and Similarities to Key-Value and Document Databases 286

Column Family Database Features 286

Column Family Database Similarities to and Differences from Document Databases 287

Column Family Database Versus Relational Databases 289

Avoiding Multirow Transactions 290

Avoiding Subqueries 291

Architectures Used in Column Family Databases 293

HBase Architecture: Variety of Nodes 293

Cassandra Architecture: Peer-to-Peer 295

Getting the Word Around: Gossip Protocol 296

Thermodynamics and Distributed Database: Why We Need Anti-Entropy 299

Hold This for Me: Hinted Handoff 300

When to Use Column Family Databases 303

Summary 304

Review Questions 304

References 305

Chapter 10 Column Family Database Terminology 307

Basic Components of Column Family Databases 308

Keyspace 309

Row Key 309

Column 310

Column Families 312

Structures and Processes: Implementing Column Family Databases 313

Internal Structures and Configuration Parameters of Column Family Databases 313

Old Friends: Clusters and Partitions 314

Cluster 314

Partition 316

Taking a Look Under the Hood: More Column Family Database Components 317

Commit Log 317

Bloom Filter 319

Consistency Level 321

Processes and Protocols 322

Replication 322

Anti-Entropy 323

Gossip Protocol 324

Hinted Handoff 325

Summary 326

Review Questions 327

References 327

Chapter 11 Designing for Column Family Databases 329

Guidelines for Designing Tables 332

Denormalize Instead of Join 333

Make Use of Valueless Columns 334

Use Both Column Names and Column Values to Store Data 334

Model an Entity with a Single Row 335

Avoid Hotspotting in Row Keys 337

Keep an Appropriate Number of Column Value Versions 338

Avoid Complex Data Structures in Column Values 339

Guidelines for Indexing 340

When to Use Secondary Indexes Managed by the Column Family Database System 341

When to Create and Manage Secondary Indexes Using Tables 345

Tools for Working with Big Data 348

Extracting, Transforming, and Loading Big Data 350

Analyzing Big Data 351

Describing and Predicting with Statistics 351

Finding Patterns with Machine Learning 353

Tools for Analyzing Big Data 354

Tools for Monitoring Big Data 355

Summary 356

Case Study: Customer Data Analysis 357

Understanding User Needs 357

Review Questions 359

References 360


Chapter 12 Introduction to Graph Databases 363

What Is a Graph? 363

Graphs and Network Modeling 365

Modeling Geographic Locations 365

Modeling Infectious Diseases 366

Modeling Abstract and Concrete Entities 369

Modeling Social Media 370

Advantages of Graph Databases 372

Query Faster by Avoiding Joins 372

Simplified Modeling 375

Multiple Relations Between Entities 375

Summary 376

Review Questions 376

References 377

Chapter 13 Graph Database Terminology 379

Elements of Graphs 380

Vertex 380

Edge 381

Path 383

Loop 384

Operations on Graphs 385

Union of Graphs 385

Intersection of Graphs 386

Graph Traversal 387

Properties of Graphs and Nodes 388

Isomorphism 388

Order and Size 389

Degree 390

Closeness 390

Betweenness 391

Types of Graphs 392

Undirected and Directed Graphs 392

Flow Network 393

Bipartite Graph 394

Multigraph 395

Weighted Graph 395

Summary 396

Review Questions 397

References 397

Chapter 14 Designing for Graph Databases 399

Getting Started with Graph Design 400

Designing a Social Network Graph Database 401

Queries Drive Design (Again) 405

Querying a Graph 408

Cypher: Declarative Querying 408

Gremlin: Query by Graph Traversal 410

Basic Graph Traversal 410

Traversing a Graph with Depth-First and Breadth-First Searches 412

Tips and Traps of Graph Database Design 415

Use Indexes to Improve Retrieval Time 415

Use Appropriate Types of Edges 416

Watch for Cycles When Traversing Graphs 417

Consider the Scalability of Your Graph Database 418

Summary 420

Case Study: Optimizing Transportation Routes 420

Understanding User Needs 420

Designing a Graph Analysis Solution 421

Review Questions 423

References 423


Chapter 15 Guidelines for Selecting a Database 427

Choosing a NoSQL Database 428

Criteria for Selecting Key-Value Databases 429

Use Cases and Criteria for Selecting Document Databases 430

Use Cases and Criteria for Selecting Column Family Databases 431

Use Cases and Criteria for Selecting Graph Databases 433

Using NoSQL and Relational Databases Together 434

Summary 436

Review Questions 436

References 437


Appendix A Answers to Chapter Review Questions 443

Appendix B List of NoSQL Databases 477

Glossary 481

9780134023212 TOC 3/27/2015

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