Parkinson's disease is one of the major causes of neurological disability in adult life. It has been encountered in all races, in every region of the world and shows no preference for either sex. In general, its initial manifestations begin in the fifth decade of life. With the world population showing an increase in numbers of people in the older age groups, Parkinson's disease will undoubtedly be encountered with increased frequency in the years to come. Though its cause is unknown, significant strides in understanding its nature and controlling its symptoms have been made during the past two decades. Contained in this volume is a comprehensive review of the present knowledge of Parkinson's disease. Though James Parkinson is credited with the uncovering the illness which now bears his name, and his monograph on the Shaking Palsy written in 1817, is truly a medical classic, descriptions of this disease can be found in medical writings going back to the time of Galen. Indeed, he himself was the first to admit that he was not describing a new disease but bringing an old one to the attention of the medical researchers of his time so that it would become a subject of interest and investigation. Specifically, his objective was the morbid anatomist whose efforts he hoped would bring to light the cause and nature of the disorder. This, then, would become a basis for· treatment or even cure.
|Publisher:||Springer-Verlag New York, LLC|
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Table of ContentsGeneric and Trade Names.- Biochemistry.- General Principles of Biochemical Transmission.- Acetylcholine.- Biosynthesis and Release of Catecholamines.- The Catabolism of Catecholamines.- False Transmitters.- Dopamine.- Noradrenaline.- Serotonin.- ?-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA).- Substance P.- Dopaminergic Neurotransmission and Neuropeptides.- Biochemical Changes in Parkinson’s Disease.- Human Post Mortem Findings.- Dopamine.- Biochemical Aspects of Dopaminergic Agonists.- D1 Receptor Activity.- Denervation Supersensitivity or Subsensitivity of Dopamine Receptors in Parkinson’s Disease.- Noradrenaline.- Serotonin, Competition of Aromatic Amino Acids.- Neuropeptides.- GABA.- The Cholinergic System.- Huntington’s Chorea.- The Clinical Pathology of Parkinson’s Disease.- Tremor.- Rigidity.- Akinesia.- Various Terms.- The “Freezing” Effect.- Kinesia Paradoxica.- The On-off Phenomenon.- Akinetic Crises.- Yo-Yoing.- Assessment of Parkinsonian Disability.- Autonomic Dysfunction.- Psychiatric Disturbances.- Pharmacotoxic Psychosis.- Treatment.- Anticholinergic Drug Therapy.- L-Dopa Treatment.- Combination Treatment with L-Dopa and a Decarboxylase Inhibitor.- Treatment with Tetrahydrobiopterin.- Amantadine.- Combined Treatment with MAO Inhibitors.- Deprenyl.- Tranylcypromine.- Dopamine Agonists.- Influence of Bromocriptine and Lisuride on Plasma Catecholamines and Urinary Metabolites.- Domperidone.- MIF.- ß-Blockers.- Treatment of Autonomic Symptoms.- Treatment of Psychiatric Symptoms.- The Drug Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease in Practice.- Drug Prescription Guide.- Neurosurgery.- Physiotherapy.- Side Effects.- Peripheral Side Effects.- Cardiac Side Effects.- Motor Side Effects.- Stretch Spasms.- Sleep Disorders.- Depression.- Dopa Psychoses.- Biochemical Aspects of the Dopa Psychoses.- Treatment of Side Effects.- Clinical Course of Parkinson’s Disease.- Observations on Human Behaviour.- References.