Phased Array Antenna Handbook

Phased Array Antenna Handbook

by Robe Maillous

Hardcover

$169.00

Overview

This newly revised third edition of an Artech House classic, Phased Array Antenna Handbook, Second Edition, offers a complete and up-to-date comprehensive treatment of array antennas and systems. This edition provides a wealth of new material, including expanded coverage of phased array and multibeam antennas. New modern machine learning techniques used for analysis are included. Additional material on wideband antennas and wideband coverage in array antennas are incorporated this book, including new methods, devices, and technologies that have developed since the second edition.

A detailed treatment of antenna system noise, sections on antenna pattern synthesis, developments in subarray technology, and in-depth information on array architecture and components are also new features of this book.
This book provides complete design details that demonstrate how to size an array system with speed and confidence.
Moreover, this book provides expanded coverage of systems aspects of arrays for radar and communications. Supported with numerous equations and illustrations, this practical book helps evaluate basic antenna parameters such as gain, sidelobe levels, and noise. Readers learn how to compute antenna system noise, design subarray geometries for given bandwidth, scan and sidelobe constraints, and choose array illumination tapers for given sidelobe levels

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781630810290
Publisher: Artech House, Incorporated
Publication date: 11/30/2017
Pages: 506
Product dimensions: 7.10(w) x 10.20(h) x 1.40(d)

About the Author

Robert J. Mailloux is currently a consultant to ARCON Corporation. An extensively published author with over 40 years of experience in industry and academia, Dr. Mailloux holds a Ph.D. in applied physics from Harvard University. He is a past president and current member of the IEEE Antennas & Propagation Society.

Table of Contents

Preface to the Third Edition xi

Preface to the Second Edition xii

Preface to the First Edition xv

Acknowledgments xvii

Chapter 1 Phased Arrays in Radar and Communication Systems 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.1.1 System Requirements for Radar and Communication Antennas 1

1.1.2 Directive Properties of Arrays 1

1.1.3 Array Noise Characterization 4

1.1.4 The Receiving Antenna in a Polarized Plane Wave Field 8

1.1.5 System Considerations 10

1.1.6 Monopulse Beam Splitting 11

1.2 Array Characterization for Radar and Communication Systems 12

1.2.1 Scanning and Collimation of Linear and Planar Arrays 15

1.2.2 Phase Scanning in One Dimension (φ0 = 0) 15

1.2.3 Two-Dimensional Scanning of Planar Arrays 18

1.2.4 Beamwidth and Directivity of Scanning Arrays 18

1.2.5 Directivity of Linear Arrays 22

1.2.6 Directivity of Planar Arrays 24

1.2.7 Array Realized Gain and Scan Loss 25

1.2.8 Grating Lobes of a Linear Array 26

1.2.9 Grating Lobes of a Planar Array 30

1.2.10 Bandwidth 31

1.2.11 Array Size Determination 35

1.2.12 EIRP and G/T for Large, Two-Dimensional Passive or Active Arrays 35

1.2.13 Gain Limitations Due to Circuit Losses 37

1.2.14 Directivity and Illumination Errors: Random Error and Quantization Error 39

1.2.15 Minimum Number of Elements versus Scan Coverage: Limited Field-of-View Arrays 42

1.2.16 Time-Delay Compensation 44

1.3 Array Architecture and Control Technology 45

1.3.1 Array Aperture 45

1.3.2 Feed Architectures 48

1.3.3 Beamforming and Relevant Architectures 53

1.3.4 RF Components for Array Control 56

1.3.5 Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit Technology 59

1.3.6 Antenna Components for Mobile Phones 59

1.3.7 Metamaterials for Array Control 60

References 61

Chapter 2 Pattern Characteristics of Linear and Planar Arrays 65

2.1 Array Analysis 65

2.1.1 The Radiation Integrals 65

2.1.2 Element Pattern Effects, Mutual Coupling, Gain Computed from Element Patterns 69

2.2 Characteristics of Linear and Planar Arrays 76

2.2.1 Linear Array Characteristics 76

2.2.2 Planar Array Characteristics 85

2.3 Scanning to Endfire 91

2.4 Thinned Arrays 94

2.4.1 Average Patterns of Density-Tapered Arrays 96

2.4.2 Probabilistic Studies of Thinned Arrays 97

2.4.3 Thinned Arrays with Quantized Amplitude Distributions 102

References 110

Chapter 3 Pattern Synthesis for Linear and Planar Arrays 113

3.1 Linear Arrays and Planar Arrays with Separable Distributions 114

3.1.1 Fourier Transform Method 114

3.1.2 Schelkunov's (Schelkunoff's) Form 114

3.1.3 Woodward Synthesis 117

3.1.4 Dolph-Chebyshev Synthesis 120

3.1.5 Taylor Line Source Synthesis 126

3.1.6 Modified sin πz/πz Patterns 134

3.1.7 Bayliss Line Source Difference Patterns 136

3.1.8 Synthesis Methods Based on Taylor Patterns: Elliott's Modified Taylor Patterns and the Iterative Method of Elliott 139

3.1.9 Discretization of Continuous Aperture Illuminations by Root Matching and Iteration 145

3.1.10 Power Pattern Parameter Optimization Based upon the Ratio of Quadratic Forms 146

3.2 Numerical Methods of Pattern Synthesis 149

3.2.1 Numerical Power Pattern Synthesis 149

3.2.2 The Alternating Projection Method 158

3.2.3 Numerical Pattern Synthesis Subject to Constraints 162

3.3 Circular Planar Arrays 164

3.3.1 Taylor Circular Array Synthesis 164

3.3.2 Bayliss Difference Patterns for Circular Arrays 166

3.4 Methods of Pattern Optimization and Adaptive Arrays 168

3.4.1 Introduction 168

3.4.2 Generalized S/N Optimization for Sidelobe Cancelers and Phased and Multiple-Beam Arrays 171

3.4.3 Operation as Sidelobe Canceler 174

3.4.4 Fully Adaptive Phased or Multiple-Beam Arrays 177

3.4.5 Wideband Adaptive Control 179

3.5 Generalized Patterns Using Covariance Matrix Inversion 184

3.6 Pattern Synthesis Including Mutual Coupling 186

3.6.1 Introduction 186

3.6.2 Pattern Synthesis Using Mutual Coupling Parameters 187

3.6.3 Pattern Synthesis Using Measured Element Patterns 188

3.6.4 Array Failure Correction 189

References 191

Chapter 4 Patterns of Nonplanar Arrays 197

4.1 Introduction 197

4.1.1 Methods of Analysis for General Conformal Arrays 198

4.2 Patterns of Circular and Cylindrical Arrays 199

4.2.1 Phase Mode Excitation of Circular Arrays 202

4.2.2 Patterns and Elevation Scan 206

4.2.3 Circular and Cylindrical Arrays of Directional Elements 207

4.2.4 Sector Arrays on Conducting Cylinders 210

4.3 Spherical and Hemispherical Arrays 233

4.4 Truncated Conical Arrays 234

References 234

Chapter 5 Elements for Phased Arrays 239

5.1 Array Elements 239

5.2 Polarization Characteristics of Infinitesimal Elements in Free Space 239

5.3 Electric Current (Wire) Antenna Elements 242

5.3.1 Effective Radius of Wire Structures with Noncircular Cross-Section 242

5.3.2 The Dipole and the Monopole 242

5.3.3 Special Feeds for Dipoles and Monopoles 246

5.3.4 Dipoles Fed Off-Center 249

5.3.5 The Sleeve Dipole and Monopole 251

5.3.6 The Bowtie and Other Wideband Dipoles 253

5.3.7 The Folded Dipole 254

5.3.8 Microstrip Dipoles 256

5.3.9 Other Wire Antenna Structures 256

5.4 Wideband Array Elements 258

5.4.1 Introduction 258

5.4.2 Self-Complementary Elements 259

5.4.3 TEM Horn Element 260

5.4.4 Long-Slot Array 260

5.4.5 Spiral Elements and Arrays 262

5.4.6 Broadband Tapered Slot and Vivaldi Arrays 262

5.4.7 Balanced Antipodal Vivaldi Antenna 266

5.4.8 Broadband Dipole Elements 267

5.4.9 Bunny Ear 268

5.4.10 Capacitively Coupled Dipoles 268

5.5 Aperture Antenna Elements 273

5.5.1 Slot Elements 273

5.5.2 Waveguide Radiators 275

5.5.3 Ridged Waveguide Elements 278

5.5.4 Horn Elements 280

5.6 Microstrip Patch Elements 280

5.6.1 Microstrip Patch 280

5.6.2 The Balanced Fed Radiator of Collings 288

5.7 Elements for Alternative Transmission Lines 289

5.8 Elements and Row (Column) Arrays for One-Dimensional Scan 289

5.8.1 Waveguide Slot Array Line Source Elements 291

5.8.2 Printed Circuit Series-Fed Arrays 295

5.9 Elements and Polarizers for Polarization Diversity 296

References 302

Chapter 6 Summary of Element Pattern and Mutual Impedance Effects 313

6.1 Mutual Impedance Effects 313

6.2 Integral Equation Formulation for Radiation and Coupling in Finite and Infinite Arrays 315

6.2.1 Formulation and Results for Finite Arrays 315

6.2.2 Formulation and Results for Infinite Arrays 319

6.3 Array Blindness and Surface Waves 329

6.4 Impedance and Element Patterns in Well-Behaved Infinite Scanning Arrays 342

6.5 Semi-Infinite and Finite Arrays 353

6.6 Impedance Matching for Wide Angle and Wideband Radiation 353

6.6.1 Reduced Element Spacing 354

6.6.2 Dielectric WAIM Sheets 356

6.7 Mutual Coupling Phenomena for Nonplanar Surfaces 358

6.8 Small Arrays and Waveguide Simulators for the Evaluation of Phased Array Scan Behavior 363

6.8.1 Several Useful Simulators 367

References 369

Chapter 7 Array Error Effects 375

7.1 Introduction 375

7.2 Effects of Random Amplitude and Phase Errors in Periodic Arrays 375

7.2.1 Average Pattern Characteristics 377

7.2.2 Directivity 380

7.2.3 Beam Pointing Error 380

7.2.4 Peak Sidelobes 381

7.3 Sidelobe Levels Due to Periodic Phase, Amplitude, and Time-Delay Quantization 384

7.3.1 Characteristics of an Array of Uniformly Illuminated Contiguous Subarrays 385

7.3.2 Phase Quantization in a Uniformly Illuminated Array 388

7.3.3 Reduction of Sidelobes Due to Phase Quantization 393

7.3.4 Subarrays with Quantized Amplitude Taper 396

7.3.5 Time Delay at the Subarray Ports 397

7.3.6 Discrete Phase or Time-Delayed Subarrays with Quantized Subarray Amplitudes 398

References 399

Chapter 8 Multiple Beam Antennas 401

8.1 Introduction 401

8.1.1 Multiple Beam Systems 402

8.1.2 Beam Crossover Loss 403

8.2 Orthogonality Loss and the Stein Limit 407

8.2.1 Introduction 407

8.2.2 Orthogonality of the psinc Functions and their Source Vectors 408

8.2.3 Power Dividers for Multiple Beam Networks 409

8.2.4 Efficiency of Multiple Beam Radiation-Stein's Limit 411

8.2.5 Multiple-Beam Matrices and Optical Beamformers 417

8.3 Multiple-Beam Lens and Reflector Systems 421

8.3.1 Multiple Beam Lenses 423

8.3.2 Reflectors for Scanning and Multiple Beams 425

8.3.3 Reflectarrays 426

References 430

Chapter 9 Special Arrays for Limited Field of View and Wideband Coverage 435

9.1 Antenna Techniques for Limited Field of View and Wideband Systems 435

9.1.1 Minimum Number of Controls 436

9.1.2 Periodic and Aperiodic Arrays for Limited Field of View 439

9.1.3 Aperiodic and Thinned Arrays 455

9.2 Completely Overlapped Subarrays 464

9.2.1 Constrained Network for Completely Overlapped Subarrays 464

9.2.2 Reflectors and Lenses with Array Feeds 472

9.2.3 Practical Design of a Dual-Transform System 493

9.3 Wideband Scanning Systems 497

9.3.1 Broadband Arrays with Time-Delayed Offset Beams 497

9.3.2 Contiguous Time-Delayed Subarrays for Wideband Systems 498

9.3.3 Overlapped Time-Delayed Subarrays for Wideband Systems 501

References 508

About the Author 513

Index 515

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