As a conscientious objector prior to World War II, author Howard Wriggins joined the American Friends Service Committee, a non-governmental organization that, with its British counterpart, would receive the Nobel Peace Prize in 1947 for their many years of refugee relief work. A young idealist who left his graduate studies in political science to assist refugees fleeing Hitler's madness, Wriggins batted out daily letters on an ancient Underwood portable to describe the cruel events he witnessed. He shares his experiences as he came to know numberless refugees and prisoners in Portugal, internees in Algiers, Yugoslavs fleeing in transport ships, refugees and Vatican officials in Italy, anguished French colleagues after years of Occupation, and Palestinians jammed into Gaza camps. Wriggins reviewed these letters five decades later after he retired from Columbia University as the Bryce Professor of the History of International Relations. In them he discovered a world far from the market-driven prosperity and political peace Europe enjoys today. Professor Wriggins has used his letters to tell a riveting personal story about the horrors of governmental persecution and a war to end it, in the midst of which idealism nevertheless persisted.
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About the Author
Howard Wriggins is Bryce Professor Emeritus of the History of International Relations at Columbia University. He served as a Rhodes Fellow at St. Antony's College at Oxford and U.S. Ambassador in Sri Lanka from 1977-1980.
Table of Contents
Chapter 1 PORTUGAL, 1942, 1943: Refugee Casework and Migration: Preparation; Lisbon: Refugee Assistance; Servicing Quaker Activities in France and Spain; Allied Landings and Lisbon Life; Refugee Responses to Adversity Chapter 2 ALGERIA AND EGYPT, 1943-1944: Refugees and Internees: Spanish Refugees, Vichy Internees and Libyans; Egypt: Yugoslav Refugees Chapter 3 ITALY, 1944-1945: Stateless Refugee Services and Rebuilding Abruzzi Villages: IGCR/AFSC Joint Program for Stateless Refugees; Village Reconstruction in the Abruzzi Mountains Chapter 4 FRANCE, 1945-1946: Spanish and Stateless Refugees and Normandy Reconstruction: The Paris Headquarters and Program; Visits to French Quaker Delegations; Life in Paris: The Day-to-Day Perspective; Changing Priorities Chapter 5 GENEVA AND GAZA, 1948-1949: Palestine Refugees: Palestine Refugees in Gaza; Return to Gaza Chapter 6 Afterword Chapter 7 Appendix 1: Historical Background to Chapter 14 Chapter 8 Appendix 2: Organizations and Acronyms Chapter 9 Appendix 3: Historical Context: Brief Chronology Chapter 10 Endnotes Chapter 11 Bibliography Chapter 12 About the Author Chapter 13 Index