The study presents the results of the SEMAFOR (System for the Evaluation of the MAnagement of FORests) pilot study, which tested the method through voluntary assessment of the sustainability of forest management in European countries, on the basis of the Pan-European set of criteria and indicators. Scale-neutral indicators were developed and used to describe and assess the situation in 20 participating countries. Thresholds were used for the assessment indicators. Results which exceeded the thresholds were the subject of a discussion with national correspondents to check accuracy, put the data in context and describe the policy response, if any. The study presents detailed results, by indicator and by country, and discusses the main issues arising from the experience.