More than 350 illustrations and photographs provide examples and visual instructions. A unique feature is the systematic arrangement of drawings that begins with the layout of the structural foundations of a facility and continues through to the development of a 3-D model. Advanced chapters discuss the use of 3-D software tools from which elevation, section and isometric drawings, and bills of materials are extracted.
- Covers drafting and design of pipes from fundamentals to detailed advice on the development of piping drawings, using manual and CAD techniques
- 3-D model images provide an uncommon opportunity to visualize an entire piping facility
- Each chapter includes exercises and questions designed for review and practice
New to this edition:
- A large scale project that includes foundation location, equipment location, arrangement, and vendor drawings
- Updated discussion and use of modern CAD tools
- Additional exercises, drawings, and dimensioning charts to provide practice and assessment
- New set of Powerpoint images to help develop classroom lectures
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PIPE DRAFTING AND DESIGN
By Roy A. Parisher Robert A. Rhea
Gulf Professional PublishingCopyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc.
All right reserved.
Chapter OneOverview of Pipe Drafting and Design
In the design of an industrial facility, engineers develop process flow sheets, set up project specifications, and design or select equipment. The design drafters use the information supplied by engineers and equipment vendors and apply the knowledge and experience gained in the office and field to design and lay out the facility.
In the design and layout of an industrial complex, thousands of piping drawings are needed to provide detailed information to the craftsmen who will construct the facility. Facility design and layout must meet the customer's expectations as well as comply with safety codes, government standards, client specifications, budget, and start-up date.
The piping group has the main responsibility for the design and layout of the facility. Drafters and designers must coordinate their efforts with the civil, structural, electrical, and instrumentation groups throughout the design process. The piping group must provide all other design groups with the information they need to complete their part of the project. This timely 'sharing' of information will guarantee the complete set of construction drawings will be finished on schedule. During this time, it may be necessary for designers to visit the plant construction site to establish tie-ins or verify information necessary to complete the design.
TYPES OF PROJECTS
The pipe drafting and design discipline includes the widest range of opportunities in the field of design drafting. The types of design projects one could expect to work on may include
pulp and paper plants;
pipe systems for hospitals and high-rise office buildings;
food and beverage processing plants;
synthetic fuel plants;
pipe line installations;
water treatment facilities;
environmental waste disposal.
Many projects will be designed for construction in other countries, offering the designer opportunities for travel. Each project presents drafters and designers with opportunities to expand their skills and knowledge of the field of piping design.
EMPLOYERS OF PIPE DRAFTERS AND DESIGNERS
Employers seek to hire pipe drafters and designers range for various companies. Among them are
engineering and construction companies;
ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION COMPANIES
Engineering and construction companies provide the design and layout of a facility. Many clients award the engineering and design phase of a project to one firm and the construction phase to another. Although many operating companies have a small engineering staff who handle the day-to-day needs of changing and updating drawings, such as adding a pump or other small equipment, they do not have the manpower to design and engineer a grassroots plant or major add-on. Total plant design and construction may require hundreds of workers and may entail years in the design and construction of the plant.
Operating companies are the clients who engage in the day-to-day operation of a facility and who seek out the services of engineering and construction firms when expanding existing facilities or constructing a new project. Many operating companies keep a small engineering staff in the home office or at the plant job site. Designers are exposed to the day-to-day operations of the facility and follow the construction of small projects. This situation may require that the designer have a broad range of knowledge and skills, as he or she often may be asked to design and lay out the complete project. The design may prepare foundation, steel, and piping drawings as needed, and may even do some electrical and instrumentation design when required.
ARCHITECTURAL ENGINEERING COMPANIES
Pipe drafters and designers employed by architectural engineering companies apply their skills to commercial and high-rise buildings. These may include multistory office buildings, hospitals, condominiums, shopping malls, or other similar structures. In addition to the industrial piping components such as those found in a typical boiler room, supplementary piping systems must be designed for plumbing, HVAC (heating, ventilating, and air conditioning), and drainage systems that are also required in these structures.
Pipe drafters and designers must therefore be able to develop drawings such as
piping flow sheets;
equipment location drawings;
piping arrangement drawings;
piping isometric drawings.
Learning the "language" of piping prepares employees for advancement to other departments within the engineering firms. These departments include not only the drafting and design departments but also
pipe stress and pipe supports;
computer-aided drafting (CAD) support;
Many firms specialize only in the construction of plants. Here the piping designer may actually help oversee the construction of the facility while working under the supervision of a construction superintendent. The designer is often called upon to make small design changes resulting from mistakes discovered during the construction phase or as customers dictate changes. At the completion of the project, drawings are updated to reflect the many changes made during construction. These drawings are called or referred to as "as-built" drawings.
Fabrication companies fabricate and ship much of the piping necessary for the construction of the plant to the job site. Many fabrication drawings called piping spool drawings must be prepared. These drawings give detailed dimensions from which welders can fabricate the pipe. The drafter who prepares these drawings will not be required to have an extensive background in plant layout; however, the position provides the drafter with valuable experience in materials and material science.
PREPARATION FOR PIPING DRAFTING
Students must have a good background in basic drafting before pursuing a job in the field of pipe drafting and design. Students should have good manual drafting skills related to line quality and freehand lettering. At the same time, students must acquire knowledge of the latest drafting software programs such as AutoCAD and MicroStation. As students advance, they may use sophisticated three-dimensional (3D) software programs that automatically generate plotted drawings and isometrics from a 3D model.
A pipe drafter must become familiar with the numerous symbols used to represent fittings, flanges, valves, and mechanical equipment. This will require the time and effort needed to draw the symbol shapes by searching through catalogs and dimensioning charts in order to find the size dimensions needed to draw each piping component to scale. Often beginning drafters start out making corrections to existing drawings. This is where they acquire the skills and knowledge of piping that will allow them to advance to the position of piping designer.
Drafters who have held field positions as pipe fitters or welders find this real-world experience valuable. Many times this experience allows them to advance at a faster pace.
Students should not neglect their speaking, writing, and math skills. Every company appraises future employees during the interview process not only for technical skills but also for the personal skills needed to interact with the engineering team. This interaction is a must for the team in order to complete the job with a minimal amount of mistakes. Honesty, reliability, dedication to improving skills, and a positive attitude contribute much to the successful career of the designer. You will be a member of a design team. You may work with people from countries all over the world. Getting along with fellow workers has much to do with successful yearly evaluations and compensation for your efforts.
CREATION OF PIPE DRAWINGS
Though new piping projects are no longer developed by hand, or manually, old vellum, mylar, and even cloth drawings are still in existence. As time permits and funds exist, companies are gradually converting their "hard copy" drawings into electronic files. But when older facilities that were originally drawn manually need to be revamped, designers and drafters may still find the need to use traditional drafting techniques. Manual drafters use a variety of triangles, plastic templates (circle and ellipse), and scales to lay out piping drawings. Although electric erasers are not necessary, they make the job of erasing much easier and faster. Pencils and leads come in a wide range of sizes and shapes. Drafters usually use a 4H lead to draw projection lines and guidelines, and use an H or F lead for other line work and lettering needs. Line thickness also has an important role in piping drawings. A 0.7mm or wider lead holder is commonly used on major elements of the drawing such as pipe and lettering. Background components such as equipment, foundations, support structures, and dimension lines are typically drawn with a 0.5mm lead.
One cannot stress enough the importance of quality line work and lettering. Manual drawings are constantly slid in and out of the file drawers and run through blueprint machines. This requires that lettering and line work be neat and of good quality to maintain clarity of dimensions and callouts.
CAD Software Tools
There are many different CAD software tools on the market today. Many engineering companies require their designers to know and use several different CAD software tools. Engineering companies must be prepared to accommodate the client's preference of CAD programs. To be competitive in the job market, the pipe drafter must learn how to use AutoCAD and/ or MicroStation. These two CAD programs are widely used by engineering firms in the United States and throughout the world.
As with CAD programs, there are several 3D pipe modeling software programs on the market today. Engineering firms must be responsive to the needs and preferences of their clients. Software developers steadily develop, revise, and refine programs to meet the demands of engineering and design firms. As with any business trying to attract new customers, software developers try to incorporate special features, functions and amenities into their software programs that will attract potential users. Often clients will dictate that all bid packages submitted for a project shall be completed using a particular piping software program. Most piping software packages provide the end user with the ability to develop 3D computer models of the completed facility. Software packages such as PDMS, PDS, SmartPlant3D, CADWorx, PLANT-4D, and MPDS4, among others have the intelligence to generate not only 3D renderings with walk-through animations but also dimensioned and annotated 2D drawings as well as dimensioned isometrics with a complete Bill of Materials.
Chapter TwoSteel Pipe
HISTORY OF PIPE
Long ago someone discovered that carrying water from the nearby stream back to his or her dwelling was time-consuming and laborious. Ingenuity gave birth to invention and the pipe was born. Using the natural resources available, early humans probably fashioned the first pipe from bamboo. Needing to move larger amounts of water, they later hollowed out logs. Egyptian and Aztec civilizations made pipes from clay. The first metallic pipes were made from lead and bronze by the Greeks and Romans. The use of iron as a material to manufacture pipe came about with the invention of gun powder. Gun powder, of course, is not used to make the iron, but gun powder necessitated the invention of stronger gun barrels. Iron pipes soon followed. Eventually, exotic metals were developed, and the pipe became the highly specialized product it is today.
Applied in a general sense, pipe is a term used to designate a hollow, tubular body used to transport any commodity possessing flow characteristics such as those found in liquids, gases, vapors, liquefied solids, and fine powders.
A comprehensive list of the materials used to manufacture pipes would be quite lengthy. Some of the materials include concrete, glass, lead, brass, copper, plastic, aluminum, cast iron, carbon steel, and steel alloys. With such a broad range of materials available, selecting one to fit a particular need can be confusing. A thorough understanding of the pipe's intended use is essential. Each material has limitations that may make it inappropriate for a given application. Throughout this text, we will base our discussion on carbon steel pipe, the most common material used in the piping industry.
Excerpted from PIPE DRAFTING AND DESIGN by Roy A. Parisher Robert A. Rhea Copyright © 2012 by Elsevier Inc. . Excerpted by permission of Gulf Professional Publishing. All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.
Table of Contents
1. Overview of Pipe Drafting and Design 2. Steel Pipe 3. Pipe Fittings 4. Flange Basics 5. Valves 6. Mechanical Equipment 7. Flow Diagrams and Instrumentation 8. Codes and Specifications 9. Equipment Layout 10. Piping Arrangement Drawings, Sections, and Elevations 11. Standard Piping Details 12. Piping Systems 13. Piping Isometrics 14. Building 3D Piping Models 15. Project Coordination
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