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McDougal Littell, Incorporated
Practical English Handbook / Edition 11

Practical English Handbook / Edition 11

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The Practical English Handbook includes concise explanations, abundant examples and models, ample practice opportunity, and help with all stages of the writing process. A coding system breaks down topics and facilitates student use. The book's compact size allows it to fit comfortably in the hand, while the durable sewn binding will withstand constant use. The MLA and APA documentation guidelines thoroughly reflect the most recent changes.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780618043002
Publisher: McDougal Littell, Incorporated
Publication date: 01/28/2001
Pages: 507
Age Range: 11 - 17 Years

About the Author

Floyd C. Watkins received his Ph.D. from Vanderbilt University and taught at Emory University, where he was Charles Howard Candler Professor of American Literature. He authored over twenty books in the field of American literature including titles on Faulkner, Wolfe, Hemingway, and Eliot.

Table of Contents

    A Memo to Writers
    1. Accuracy and Logic
    a. Reliable sources
    b. Accurate information
    c. Sweeping generalizations
    d. Exaggeration
    e. Circular reasoning
    f. False comparisons
    g. Sticking to the point
    h. Appeals to prejudice
    i. Cause and effect
    j. The either...or fallacy
    2. Writing and Revising
    a. Finding a worthy subject
    b. Developing your ideas and planning your paper
    c. Organizing systematically
    d. Adapting to your audience
    e. Using an appropriate tone
    f. Choosing appropriate tense and number
    g. Stating your thesis
    h. Writing an appropriate length paper
    i. Writing a first draft
    j. REvising your draft
    k. Model paper
    l. Composing and revising on a computer
    3. Writing Paragraphs
    a. Writing a topic sentence
    b. Unifying paragraphs
    c. Developing paragraphs
    d. Trimming, tightening, or dividing paragraphs
    e. Using appropriate development methods
    f. Using transitional devices
  • Grammar
    4. Grammar
    The Parts of Speech
    a. Nouns
    b. Pronouns
    c. Verbs
    d. Adjectives
    e. Adverbs
    f. Conjunctions
    g. Prepositions
    h. Interjections
    The Parts of Sentences
    i. Simple subjects, complete subjects, compound subjects
    j. Simple predicates, complete predicates, compound predicates
    k. Complements
    l. Phrases
    m. Clauses
    n. Kinds of sentences
  • Sentence Errors
    5. Sentence Fragments
    6. Comma Splices and Fused Sentences
    7. Verb Forms
    8. Tense and Sequence of Tenses
    a. Present tense
    b. Past tense
    c. Future tense
    d. Progressive tenses
    e. Perfect tenses
    f.Present infinitive
    g. Consistency
    9. Voice
    10. Subjunctive Mood
    11. Subject and Verb: Agreement
    a. Singular verb with a singular subject
    b. Plural verb with a plural subject
    c. Compound subject
    d. Compound subject with or, nor, etc.
    e. Phrases and clauses between a subject and a verb
    f. Collective nouns
    g. Nouns plural in form, singular in meaning
    h. Indefinite pronouns
    i. All, some, part, etc.
    j. There, here
    k. Agreement with subject, not predicate nominative
    l. After a relative pronoun
    m. With titles or words used as words
    n. Expressions of time, money, measurement, etc.
    12. Pronouns and Antecedents: Agreement, Reference, and Usage
    a. Singular pronoun with a singular antecedent
    b. Plural pronoun with a plural antecedent
    c. Compound antecedent with and
    d. Compound antecedent with or, nor, etc.
    e. Collective noun as antecedent
    f. Each, either, etc.
    g. Vague and ambiguous antecedents
    h. Which, who, that
    i. Pronouns ending in -self, -selves
    13. Case
    a. Subjects and subjective complements
    b. Direct objects, indirect objects, objects of prepositions
    c. Subjects and objects of infinitives
    d. Appositives
    e. After than or as
    f. Who, Whom
    g. Apostrophe or of phrase for possession
    h. Words preceding a gerund
    14. Adjectives and Adverbs
    a. Adverbs modifying verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs
    b. After linking verbs be, become, seem, etc.
    c. After a verb and its object
    d. Comparative and superlative degrees
    e. Avoiding double comparatives and superlatives
    f. Absolute concepts and absolute modifiers
    g. Avoiding double negatives
  • Sentence Structure
    15. Choppy Sentences and Excessive Coordination
    16. Subordination
    a. Subordination of less important ideas
    b. Avoiding overlapping subordination
    17. Completeness
    a. Omission of verbs and prepositions
    b. Omission of that
    18. Comparisons
    a. Illogical comparisons
    b. Using the word other
    c. Awkward and incomplete comparisons
    19. Consistency
    a. Avoiding shifts in grammatical forms
    b. Avoiding faulty predication
    c. Avoid constructions is when, is where, or the reason is because
    20. Position of Modifiers
    a. Dangling
    b. Misplaced
    c. Limiting
    d. Squinting
    21. Separation of Elements
    a. Subject and verb, parts of a verb phrase, or verb and object
    b. A sentence containing a quotation
    c. Split infinitives
    22. Parallelism
    a. With coordinating conjunctions
    b. With correlative conjunctions
    c. With and who, and which, or and that
    23. Variety
  • Punctuation
    24. Commas
    a. Between two independent clauses
    b. In a series
    c. Between coordinate adjectives
    d. After introductory phrases and clauses
    e. With nonessential elements
    f. With sentence modifiers, conjunctive adverbs, and elements out of order
    g. With degrees, titles, dates, places, addresses
    h. For contrast or emphasis
    i. With mild interjections and yes or no
    j. With direct address and salutations
    k. With expressions like he said, she remarked
    l. With absolute phrases
    m. To prevent misreading or to mark an omission
    25. Unnecessary Commas
    a. Between subject and verb, verb and object, adjective and word it modifies
    b. Before coordinating conjunctions
    c. Not with essential clauses, phrases, or appositives
    d. After coordinating conjunctions
    e. Before subordinating conjunctions
    f. After the opening phrase of an inverted sentence
    g. Before the first or after the last item in a series
    h. Before than
    i. After like or such as
    j. With period, question mark, dash, exclamation point
    k. Before parentheses
    26. Semicolons
    a. Between independent clauses not connected by a coordinating conjunction
    b. To separate independent clauses
    c. In a series between items that have internal punctuation
    d. Not between elements that are not grammatically equal
    27. Colons
    a. After formal introduction of a quotation
    b. After formal introduction of a series of items
    c. After a formal introduction of an appositive
    d. Between two independent clauses
    e. In salutations, times, bibliographical entries
    f. Not after linking verbs or prepositions
    28. Dashes
    29. Parentheses
    30. Brackets
    31. Quotation Marks
    a. Direct quotations and dialogue
    b. Quotation within a quotation
    c. Titles of short works
    d. Not with titles of your own papers
    e. Not for emphasis, slang, irony, humor
    f. Not with block quotations
    g. With other punctuation
    32. End Punctuation
    a. Period at end of a sentence
    b. Period after abbreviations
    c. Ellipsis points for omission
    d. Punctuation of titles
    e. Question mark after direct question
    f. No question mark within parentheses or exclamation point for humor
    g. Exclamation point
  • Mechanics
    33. Manuscript Forms, Business Letters, and Résumés
    a. Manuscripts
    b. Business letters and applications
    c. Résumés
    34. Italics
    a. Titles
    b. Names of ships and trains
    c. Foreign words
    d. Words, letters, figures
    e. Rarely use for emphasis
    f. Not for titles of your own papers
    35. Spelling
    a. Spell-checking
    b. Proofreading
    c. Distinguishing homonyms
    d. Spelling strategies
    36. Hyphenation and Syllabication
    a. Compound words
    b. Compound adjectives
    c. Compound numbers
    d. Dividing a word at the end of line
    37. Apostrophes
    a. For possessive nouns not ending in s
    b. For possessive of singular nouns ending in s
    c. Without s for possessive of plural nouns ending in s
    d. For possessive of indefinite pronouns
    e. For joint possession
    f. For omissions and contractions
    g. For acronyms and words being named
    38. Capital Letters
    a. First word of sentence
    b. In titles
    c. First word of direct quotations
    d. Titles with names
    e. Title of head of nation
    f. Proper nouns
    g. Family names
    h. The pronoun I and the interjection O
    i. Months, days of the week, holidays
    j. B.C., A.D, deities, religions, sacred books
    k. Specific courses
    39. Abbreviations and Symbols
    a. Days, months, measurement, states, countries
    b. Acceptable abbreviations
    c. Acceptable symbols
    40. Numbers
    a. Spelled out
    b. Consistency
    c. For complete dates, addresses, page and chapter references, percentages, hours
  • Diction and Style
    41. Diction
    a. Frequently using a dictionary
    b. Precise meaning
    c. Connotation
    d. Colloquialisms and contractions
    e. Slang
    f. Dialect
    g. Words used as the wrong part of speech
    h. Idioms
    i. Specialized vocabulary
    j. Building a vocabulary
    42. Style
    a. Conciseness
    b. Repetition
    c. Flowery language
    d. Clarity
    e. Triteness and clichés
    f. Figures of speech
  • Literature
    43. Writing About Literature
    a. Choosing a subject
    Kinds of literary papers
    b. Using a precise paper title
    c. Not beginning with broad philosophical statements
    d. Appropriate development
    e. Paraphrasing and plot summary
    f. Original Thinking
    g. Not writing about yourself or "the reader"
    h. Providing sufficient evidence
    i. Using quotations
    j. Not moralizing
    k. Acknowledging sources
    l. Writing about a story
    m. Writing about a poem
    Model Paper
  • Research
    44. Writing a Research Paper
    a. Choosing a subject
    b. Major research tools
    c. General reference aids
    d. Specialized reference aids
    e. Evaluating sources
    f. Taking notes
    g. Quoting and paraphrasing accurately; avoiding plagiarism
    h. Producing an outline
    i. Following a system of documentation
    j. MLA style of documentation
    k. Model research paper, MLA style
    l. APA style of documentation
    m. Model research paper, APA style
  • Glossary of Usage
    45. Glossary of Exactness and Usage
  • English as a Second Language (ESL)
    46. English as a Second Language (ESL)
    a. ESL checklist
    b. ESL lists
  • Glossary of Terms
    47. Glossary of Terms

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