ISBN-10:
0471780448
ISBN-13:
9780471780441
Pub. Date:
09/18/2006
Publisher:
Wiley
Practical Wastewater Treatment / Edition 1

Practical Wastewater Treatment / Edition 1

by David L. Russell

Hardcover

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Overview

Practical techniques for handling industrial waste and designing treatment facilities

Practical Wastewater Treatment is designed as a teaching and training tool for chemical, civil, and environmental engineers. Based on an AIChE training course, developed and taught by the author, this manual equips readers with the skills and knowledge needed to design a wastewater treatment plant and handle various types of industrial wastes. With its emphasis on design issues and practical considerations, the manual enables readers to master treatment techniques for managing a wide range of industrial wastes, including oil, blood and protein, milk, plating, refinery, and phenolic and chemical plant wastes.

A key topic presented in the manual is biological modeling for designing wastewater treatment plants. The author demonstrates how these models lead to both more efficient and more economical plants.

As a practical training tool, this manual contains a number of features to assist readers in tackling complex, real-world problems, including:

  • Examples and worked problems throughout the manual demonstrate how various treatment plants and treatment techniques work
  • Figures and diagrams help readers visualize and understand complex design issues
  • References as well as links to online resources serve as a gateway to additional information
  • Practical design hints, stemming from the author's extensive experience, help readers save time and avoid unwanted and expensive pitfalls
  • Clear and logically organized presentation has been developed and refined based on an AIChE course taught by the author in the United States, Mexico, and Venezuela

Whether a novice or experienced practitioner, any engineer who deals with the treatment of industrial waste will find a myriad of practical advice and useful techniques that they can immediately apply to solve problems in wastewater treatment.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780471780441
Publisher: Wiley
Publication date: 09/18/2006
Pages: 288
Product dimensions: 6.42(w) x 9.41(h) x 0.75(d)

About the Author

DAVID L. RUSSELL, PE, is an environmental engineer with a background in consulting in the chemical Industry. He has over 50 years of experience including 9 years in the chemical industry for Hooker, IMC Chemical and Allied Chemicals. He was an instructor through the American Institute of Chemical Engineers where he taught courses in Practical Wastewater Treatment and Hazardous Materials and Hazardous Wastes. He also taught many courses in the Middle East.

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Table of Contents

Acknowledgments xvii

Preface xix

1 Composition, Chemistry, and Regulatory Framework 1

1.1 Water Composition 1

1.2 Water Characteristics and Physical Properties 2

1.2.1 Solubility of Gases in Water 4

1.2.1.1 Nitrogen 4

1.2.2 Henry’s Law 6

1.3 Solution Chemistry: Salts and Ions in Water 10

1.4 Disassociation Constants for Weak Acid and Bases 12

1.4.1 Common Minerals Dissolved in Freshwater and Seawater 15

1.5 Sources of Water 16

1.5.1 Groundwater 16

1.5.2 Groundwater Quality 17

1.5.3 Other Principal Contaminants in Groundwater 18

1.5.4 Movement of Groundwater 19

1.6 Analytical Methods 19

1.7 Laboratory Guidance 22

1.8 Regulatory Framework of Water Regulations 24

1.8.1 What Is Quality Water? 24

1.8.2 Water Quality Standards 25

1.8.3 Water Quality Standards in the United States 26

1.8.4 Establishing Water Quality Standards 26

1.8.5 Effluent Standards and Guidance 26

1.8.6 Mixing Zones 27

1.8.7 Discharge Permits 28

1.8.8 US Penalty Policies – Enforcement of Permit Conditions 28

1.8.9 Water Quality Discharge Basics in the US 29

1.8.10 How Water Quality Standards Are Established 32

1.8.11 UK Water Effluent Quality Standard 37

1.8.12 EU Water Quality Standards and Effluent Limits 39

1.8.13 Other Water Quality Requirements 40

1.8.13.1 US Primary and Secondary Drinking Water Standards 40

1.8.13.2 WHO Drinking Water Quality Guidelines 43

1.8.13.3 EU Drinking Water Directives 43

1.8.13.4 UK Drinking Water Standards 43

1.9 Water Use Data and Some Discharge Characteristics 43

1.9.1 Water Use by Municipalities 45

1.9.2 Agricultural Water 47

1.9.3 Cooling Water 47

1.9.4 Boiler Water 48

1.9.5 Other Industrial Water Quality Requirements 49

1.9.5.1 Steel Industry 50

1.9.5.2 Paper Industry 50

1.9.5.3 Petrochemical Industry 50

1.9.5.4 Petroleum Exploration and Production Operations 51

Notes 52

2 What is Water Pollution? 59

2.1 Pollution Defined 59

2.2 Chemical Industry 60

2.3 Cooling Towers 63

2.4 Boilers 64

2.5 Iron and Steel Industry 66

2.6 Mining Industries 67

2.7 Fracking for Oil and Gas 68

2.8 Petroleum Exploration 71

2.9 Petroleum Refining 73

2.10 Agricultural and Food Processing 75

2.11 Crop Water Use 75

2.12 Vegetable and Fruit Processing 76

2.13 Animal Farming and Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations 77

2.14 Livestock and Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations 78

2.15 Slaughterhouse and Meat Packing and Processing Wastes 82

2.16 Dairy Wastes 83

2.17 Measuring Pollution 83

2.18 The Sampling Plan 85

2.19 Analytical Methods and the Role of the Laboratory 87

2.19.1 The Analytical Plan 90

2.19.2 The Effects of Pollution on the Environment 90

2.19.3 Oxygen Depletion – Biochemical Oxygen Demand 91

2.19.4 Oxygen Uptake in a Stream —The Oxygen Sag Equation 93

2.19.5 Biology of Polluted Water 95

2.19.6 Nitrogen 96

2.19.7 Phosphorus 97

Notes 98

3 Groundwater and its Treatment 103

3.1 Hydraulics of Groundwater 104

3.2 Soil Particles and Surface Areas 106

3.3 Well Hydraulics 107

3.4 Well Packing and Screens 109

3.5 Trenches 109

3.5.1 Orifices and Pipe Losses 111

3.6 Compressible Flow 113

3.6.1 Calculation of Expansion Factor 114

3.6.2 Groundwater Hydraulics 115

3.7 Groundwater Treatment 117

Notes 123

4 Statistics of Measurements 125

4.1 Introduction to Statistical Measurements: Background 125

4.2 Significant Figures 126

4.3 Probable Error 127

4.4 Repeat Measurements 128

4.5 Net Process Measurements 129

4.5.1 Calibration 129

4.5.2 How to Measure Your Flow Accurately 130

4.5.2.1 Gurley Current Meter 130

4.6 Statistical Distributions for Environmental Events 133

4.6.1 Weibull Distributions 134

4.7 Black Swans and Data Analysis 135

4.7.1 Black Swans 135

4.7.2 Data Analysis 136

4.7.3 Outliers 136

Notes 137

5 The Flow of Water and Wastewater 139

5.1 Statistical Basis for Error Estimation 139

5.2 Open Channel Hydraulics 140

5.3 Froude Number 147

5.4 Types of Flowmeters 150

5.5 Weir Plates 155

5.6 Alignment Errors 156

5.7 Samples and Sampling 158

5.8 Conclusion 161

Notes 161

6 Troubleshooting and Emergency Planning 163

6.1 Fault Tree Analysis 163

6.2 Reverse Fault Tree Analysis 166

6.2.1 Bow Tie Analysis 166

6.3 Analysis: The Five Whys 168

6.4 Regulatory Requirements 169

6.5 Software Solutions 169

6.6 Emergency Response Planning 170

Notes 170

7 Chemistry and Analyses 173

7.1 Aquatic Testing 173

7.2 Bacterial Testing 174

7.3 Dissolved Organic Materials – BOD, COD, and TOC 175

7.3.1 BOD vs ThOD 179

7.3.2 Chemical Oxygen Demand 181

7.3.3 TOC 183

7.4 Common Ion Species 183

7.4.1 Most Important Chemicals in the Water Environment 185

7.4.2 pH 185

7.4.3 Carbonate Chemistry 186

7.4.4 Alkalinity 186

7.5 Hardness 189

7.6 Chemical Water Softening 192

7.6.1 Excess Lime Process 193

7.7 Nitrogen 194

7.8 Phosphorus 197

7.9 Sulfur 198

7.10 Chlorine 198

7.11 Other Halogens 199

7.12 Metals 199

7.13 Solids 201

7.14 Organic Chemicals 205

Notes 206

8 Basic Water and Wastewater Treatment Techniques 209

8.1 Removal of Metals 209

8.2 Chromium 211

8.2.1 Other Chromium Reduction Reactions 212

8.3 Arsenic 213

8.4 Cadmium 213

8.5 Iron 214

8.6 Zinc 214

8.7 Mercury 214

8.8 Radium 215

8.9 Anions 218

8.9.1 Cyanide 218

8.9.2 Nitrates and Nitrites 219

8.10 Solvents and Oils 220

8.11 Chlorinated Organics 221

8.11.1 PCBs 222

8.11.2 DDT 223

Notes 225

9 Biological Wastewater Treatment 227

9.1 The Microbial World 227

9.2 Order of Treatment 233

9.3 Types of Organisms 234

9.4 Chemistry and Activated Sludge 238

9.5 Growth Conditions and Nitrification 239

9.6 Denitrification and Phosphate Removal 240

9.7 Biological Growth Equation 241

9.7.1 The Monod Equation 242

9.7.2 Microbial Decay 243

9.7.3 Effect of Temperature and pH on Rate of Reactions 245

9.8 Principles of Biological Treatment Systems 245

9.9 Activated Sludge and its Variations 248

9.10 Substrate Removal Definitions 250

9.11 Trickling Filters and Variations 252

9.12 Clarification for Biological Removals 254

9.13 Other Solids Removals 255

9.14 Biological Synthesis and Oxidation 255

9.15 Biological Treatment of Toxic Wastes 257

9.16 Modeling the Biological Process 257

9.16.1 Modeling Notes Before One Starts 258

9.16.2 Free Wastewater Treatment Modeling Platforms 261

9.16.2.1 SSSP 261

9.16.2.2 STEADY 261

9.16.2.3 JASS 262

9.16.2.4 Stoat 262

9.16.3 Commercially Available Modeling Tools 263

9.16.3.1 GPSX 263

9.16.3.2 SUMO 264

9.16.3.3 SIMBA 265

9.16.3.4 Biowin 267

9.16.3.5 WEST 268

9.16.4 Modeling Summary 268

Notes 270

10 Anaerobic Treatment 273

10.1 Basic Anaerobic Processes for Wastewater 273

10.2 Phosphorus Removal 275

10.3 Basic Anaerobic Processes for Digestion and Treatment 276

10.4 Anaerobic Pretreatment 278

10.5 Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactors 281

10.6 Other Digester Configurations 283

10.7 Siloxane Removals 283

10.8 Sludge Digestion 284

10.9 Gas Production Emphasis 286

10.10 New Technologies 287

10.11 Sludge Treatment 288

10.12 Anaerobic Digester Model ADM1 288

10.13 Struvite and Anaerobic Processes 289

Notes 290

11 Precipitation and Sedimentation 293

11.1 Theory of Sedimentation 293

11.2 Clarifiers and their Design 294

11.2.1 Bulk Velocity – Surface Loading Rate 294

11.2.2 Hydraulic Detention Time 296

11.3 Lamellas and Specialty Devices 298

11.3.1 Lamellas 298

11.3.2 Membrane Filters 299

Note 301

12 Granular Filtration Theory and Practice 303

12.1 Granular Media Filtration 303

12.1.1 Sizing of Filters by Flow Rate 303

12.1.2 Uniformity Coefficient and Effective Grain Size 306

12.2 Filtration Hydraulics 306

12.3 Particle Size Removals 307

12.4 Backwash Hydraulics 307

12.4.1 Use of Air in the Backwash of Granular Filtration Systems 310

Notes 312

13 Skin Filtration 313

13.1 Introduction 313

13.2 Microstrainers and Screens 313

13.3 Belt Filters 316

13.4 Plate and Frame Filters 316

13.5 Cloth vs. Paper Filters 319

13.6 Precoat 320

13.7 Head Loss Through Cloth Filters 322

13.8 Bag Filters 323

Notes 324

14 Membrane Filters and Reverse Osmosis 325

14.1 Introduction 325

14.2 Design Values 330

14.3 Process Selection 330

14.3.1 Ultrafiltration Membrane Selection 330

14.3.2 Cellulose Acetate Membranes 331

14.3.3 Polysulfone Membranes 331

14.3.4 Polyamide Membranes 331

14.3.5 Polyacrylonitrile Membranes 331

14.3.6 Ultrafiltration Modules 332

14.4 Reverse Osmosis 333

14.5 Mass Transfer Theory 333

14.6 Membrane Design Software 334

14.7 Membrane Materials 336

14.8 Membrane Configurations 337

14.9 RO Design Considerations 338

14.9.1 Feedwater Supply Considerations 338

14.9.2 Pressure Pumping 338

14.9.3 Membrane Considerations 341

14.9.4 Post-treatment 341

14.10 Design Parameters 341

Notes 344

15 Disinfection 347

15.1 Introduction 347

15.2 Rate of Kill – Disinfection Parameters 347

15.2.1 Chick’s Law 347

15.2.2 Harmful Organisms 348

15.3 Chlorine 353

15.3.1 Ammonia, Chlorine, and Chloramines 354

15.3.2 Other Types of Chlorine 355

15.3.3 Other Reactions with Chlorine 355

15.3.4 Chlorine Safety 355

15.3.5 Chlorine Dioxide 356

15.4 Ozone 357

15.5 Ultraviolet Light 358

15.5.1 LED Lighting 360

15.6 Other Disinfecting Compounds 360

15.6.1 Potassium Permanganate 360

15.6.2 Hydrogen Peroxide and Ozone 361

15.6.3 PAA: Peracetic Acid 362

15.6.4 Bromine 364

15.6.5 Iodine 365

15.6.5.1 Types of Iodinators 365

15.6.5.2 Careful Use of Iodine 365

15.7 Disinfection by Ultra Filtration 366

Notes 367

16 Phosphorus and Nitrogen Removal 369

16.1 General 369

16.2 BardenPho- Processes 373

16.3 Chemical Phosphorus Removal 375

16.4 Nitrogen Removal 378

16.4.1 Nitrogen Chemistry and Forms 378

16.4.2 Ammonia 378

16.4.3 Nitrate 379

16.4.4 Nitrification 379

16.4.4.1 Ammonia Stripping 388

16.4.4.2 Ion Exchange 390

16.5 Conclusions 392

Notes 392

17 Carbon Adsorption 395

17.1 Introduction 395

17.2 The Freundlich and Langmuir Equations 396

17.3 Carbon Adsorption Physical Coefficients and Economics 397

17.4 Other Considerations 397

17.4.1 Carbon Regeneration 397

17.4.2 The PACTTM Process 397

17.4.3 Wet Air Regeneration for PACT Systems 398

Note 401

18 Ion Exchange 403

18.1 Resins 403

18.2 Physical Characteristics 403

18.3 Chemical Structure 404

18.3.1 Selectivity 404

18.3.2 Selectivity Coefficient 405

18.4 Design Considerations 406

18.4.1 Pretreatment 406

19 Dissolved Air Flotation and Techniques 409

19.1 Design Basics for DAF 409

19.2 Operating Parameters 410

19.3 Theory and Design 411

19.4 Ranges of Data 412

19.5 Electroflotation 413

19.5.1 Electroflotation Theory and Design 414

19.6 Electrocoagulation 415

Notes 416

20 Coagulation, Flocculation and Chemical Treatment 419

20.1 Introduction 419

20.2 Sols 421

20.3 Flocculation and Mixing 422

20.4 Practice 423

20.5 Modeling 424

Notes 424

21 Heat Transfer Processes: Boilers, Heat Exchangers and Cooling Towers 425

21.1 Boilers 425

21.2 Boiler Classifications 426

21.2.1 Fire Tube Boilers 426

21.2.2 Water Tube Boilers 426

21.3 Boiler Water Quality Requirements 427

21.4 Cooling Towers 430

Notes 431

22 Evaluating an Existing Wastewater Treatment Plant Design using Modeling Software 433

22.1 Step 1: Information Gathering 433

22.2 Step 2: Model Selection 435

22.3 Step 3: Laboratory and Other Data Organization 438

22.3.1 Generating the Flows Without the Data 439

22.3.2 Getting the Hydraulics and the Tankage Correct 440

22.3.2.1 When You Cannot Dye-test Your Tanks – a Procedure 441

22.4 Step 4: Flow Sheet Setup and Model Organization 443

22.5 Step 5: Model Compilation and Setup 444

22.5.1 Initial Values versus Derived Values 445

22.5.2 Integrator Settings 445

22.6 Step 6: Input and Output File Preparation 445

22.7 Step 7: Initialization of the Model Parameters and First Runs 445

22.7.1 What to Balance or Adjust 446

22.7.2 What to Key in on During Your Modeling 446

22.8 Step 8: Parameter Adjustments 446

Notes 447

Index 449

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"…a clear, concise, coverage of water pollution control from a practical standpoint." (Journal of Hazardous Materials, March 6, 2007)

"…a teaching and training tool for chemical, civil, and environmental engineers." (Journal of the American Water Resources Association, October 2006)

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