Prisons in the United States: A Reference Handbook

Prisons in the United States: A Reference Handbook

by Cyndi Banks

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Offering perspectives from a range of experts, both academic and nonacademic, this reference book examines the development of prisons in the United States and addresses the principal contemporary issues and controversies of our prisons and prison systems.

• Presents a comprehensive yet succinct history of the development of men's and women's prisons in the United States

• Offers a range of author perspectives that identify and explore the principal issues associated with prisons and imprisonment

• Documents the shift from an intent to reform inmates in prisons to retribution and an attempt to remove all criminals from society, using prisons for "warehousing" of undesired elements

• Provides a complete reference guide for the understanding of prisons and imprisonment as a punishment

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781440844386
Publisher: ABC-CLIO, Incorporated
Publication date: 03/27/2017
Series: Contemporary World Issues
Sold by: Barnes & Noble
Format: NOOK Book
Pages: 309
Sales rank: 883,696
File size: 4 MB

About the Author

Cyndi Banks is associate vice president at Capilano University in Canada and emeritus professor of criminology and criminal justice, Northern Arizona University.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii

1 Background and History 1

History of the Prison 2

Traditional Punishments: Colonial Period 4

Jails, Prisons, and Penal Reform 4

The Birth and Decline of the Penitentiary 9

Elmira Reformatory and the Men's Reformatory Movement, 1876-1920 21

The Women's Reformatory Movement 26

Post-Penitentiary Developments, 1865-1940 32

Individual Deviance and the Medical Model: Progressive Period, 1900-1920 33

The 1940s 40

Developments in Corrections: The 1950s to Date 41

References 50

2 Problems, Controversies, and Solutions 55

The "Pains of Imprisonment" and Recidivism 56

Prison and Amenities: Principle of Less Eligibility 64

Rising Correctional Costs 70

Mentally Ill Prisoners 71

Elderly Prisoners 74

Prison Violence 75

Prison Gangs 81

Juveniles in Adult Prisons 87

The Corrections Industrial Complex 89

Private Prisons 90

Super-Maximum or "Supermax" Prisons 94

Solitary Confinement 99

Prison Rape 104

Transgender Prisoners 108

Life Sentences and Life without Parole (LWOP) 111

Abolishing Imprisonment and Prison Reform 114

References 118

3 Perspectives 129

Imprisonment in America, Ashley Nellis 131

Mass Injustice: The War on Drugs, Institutional Discrimination, and the Impact on U.S. Prisons, Christine Arazan 135

Supermax: A Troubling Trend in Incarceration, Michael Costelloe 140

Should a College Degree Be Required for Correctional Officers?, Deborah Mitchell Robinson 144

Challenges Paced by Female Prison Officers Working with Female Prisoners, Susan Jones 147

Threads of Correctional Leadership: A Wardens Perspective, Angel Medina 150

Working with Chronically Mentally HI Inmates: A Shift Commander's Perspective, Vince Guerrero 155

Roll Call James J. Hamm 159

4 Profiles 165

American Civil Liberties Union National Prison Project 166

American Correctional Association 167

American Correctional Health Services Association 169

American Friends Service Committee 171

Association of State Correctional Administrators 172

Bureau of Justice Statistics 174

Correctional Association of New York 175

Corrections Technology Association 178

Families Against Mandatory Minimums 179

Federal Bureau of Prisons 180

Human Rights Watch 184

The Innocence Project 185

National Association of Sentencing Commissions 187

National Correctional Industries Association 189

National Institute of Corrections 190

The Sentencing Project 192

Solitary Watch 194

Transgender Law Center Detention Project 194

U.S. Sentencing Commission 195

Women's Prison Association 198

5 Data and Documents 201

Incarceration Trends and Numbers 201

Figure 5.1 International Rates of Incarceration per 100,000 202

Figure 5.2 U.S. State and Federal Prison Population, 1925-2014 202

Table 5.1 Prisoners under the Jurisdiction of State or Federal Correctional Authorities, December 31, 2004-2014 203

Table 5.2 Imprisonment Rates for Sentenced Prisoners under the Jurisdiction of State and Federal Correctional Authorities per 100,000 U.S. Residents, December 31, 2014 204

Demographic Characteristics 205

Table 5.3 Imprisonment Rate of Sentenced State and Federal Male Prisoners per 100,000 U.S. Residents, by Demographic Characteristics, December 31, 2014 206

Table 5.4 Imprisonment Rate of Sentenced State and Federal Female Prisoners per 100,000 U.S. Residents, by Demographic Characteristics, December 31, 2014 206

Type of Offense 207

Table 5.5 Estimated Percentage of Sentenced Prisoners under Federal Correctional Authority, by Most Serious Offense, Sex, Race, and Hispanic Origin, September 30, 2014 207

Recidivism 208

Table 5.6 Rearrest Rates for Recidivism Study Offenders by Federal Offense Type 209

Table 5.7 Texas: Rearrest Rates by Fiscal Year of Release or Start of Supervision, Fiscal Years 2009-2011 Showing Percentage Rearrested within Three Years 210

Mandatory Minimum Sentences 211

Table 5.8 Overcrowding in All Federal Facilities and Low-, Medium-, and High-Security Male Facilities, FY1995-FY2012 212

Life Sentences and Life without Parole 213

Table 5.9 Offenses for Which Life Imprisonment Was Imposed in the Federal System in FY2013 213

Table 5.10 Offenses for Which De Facto Life Sentences Were Imposed in the Federal System in FY2013 214

Table 5.11 State Enactment of Life without Parole Laws 214

The Aging Prison Population 215

Table 5.12 Sentenced State Prisoners, by Age, Race, and Hispanic Origin, December 31, 1993 215

Table 5.13 Sentenced State Prisoners, by Age, Race, and Hispanic Origin, December 31, 2013 216

Mental Health 217

Table 5.14 Prevalence of Symptoms of Mental Health Disorders among State and Federal Prisoners, 2004 217

Table 5.15 Prisoners Who Had a Mental Health Problem, by Characteristic of Gender, Age, and Race 219

Documents 220

Colonial Punishments 220

U.S. Constitution 221

Benjamin Rush on Public Punishments (1798) 221

On the Penitentiary System in the United States (1833) 223

Female Convicts (1864) 226

Resolutions of the National Congress on Penitentiary and Reformatory Discipline (1870) 228

Grover Cleveland on Prison Reform (1886) 230

Herbert Hoover on Federal Prison Reform (1929) 233

Richard Nixon on Prison Labor (1973) 235

Barack Obama on Prison Reform (2015) 238

6 Resources 245

Books and Book Chapters 245

Journal Articles 264

Reports of Federal Agencies 266

News Media Reports 267

Reports by Private Organizations 269

Nonprint Resources 269

7 Chronology 281

Glossary 293

Index 297

About the Author 311

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