The impact of the retinoids in clinical practice has primarily been in dermatology. When Dr Werner Bollag began his basic research and screening programme in the early 1960's, the expectation was that the retinoids would have a major impact on oncology. However, the laboratory and clinical experiences of Bollag and his colleagues in Switzerland, Stuttgen and Orfanos in Germany, led to publications on both etretinates (Tigason) and isotretinoin (Roaccutane) in the years between 1972 and 1976 in the field of dermatology. In fact the first symposium on retinoid research held in Berlin in 1981 was almost entirely dermatological. A year later a retinoid workshop in Iowa was designed to provide a forum for dermatolog ists from the USA involved in specific protocols investigating oral retinoids. In the UK, research into the retinoids began rather later than in Continental Europe or in the USA, although Tigason was first marketed here. It was felt in late 1982 that as many dermatologists had relatively little experience with these compounds it would be appropriate to hold an International Symposium on retinoid therapy in the UK. Thus on 16-18 May 1983 in London, 37 speakers from 11 countries addressed an audience of 300, aminly UK, dermatologists. The scientific organizing committee consisted of but two persons Dr William Cunliffe of Leeds General Infirmary, representing the European Society of Dermatolo gical Research, and myself from Roche Clinical Research. The Symposium was held under the auspices of the ESDR and of Roche Products Limited.
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Table of Contents1 The Development of Retinoids in Dermatology.- Section 1: Clinical and Laboratory Studies with Etretinate.- 2 Etretinate and Isotretinoin, Two Retinoids with Different Pharmacokinetic Profiles.- 3 Experience with Etretinate in the UK.- 4 The Treatment of Children with Etretinate.- 5 Austrian Experience with Etretinate.- 6 PUVA-Etretinate Therapy in Chronic Plaque and Palmar Plantar Pustular Psoriasis.- 7 The Use of Tigason (Etretinate) in Darier’s Disease.- 8 Etretinate in the Ichthyosiform Erythrodermas.- 9 Lupus Erythematosus and Etretinate.- 10 Etretinate Treatment in Erosive Lichen Planus of the Oral Mucosa.- Section 2: Etretinate Mechanism of Action.- 11 Overview of Mode of Action of Retinoids.- 12 Effects of Synthetic Retinoids on Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes and Polymorphonuclears in Vitro.- 13 Effects of Retinoids on Chondrogenesis and Epidermogenesis in Vitro.- 14 Further Observations on the Pharmacology of Retinoids.- 15 The Effects of Etretinate on Angiogenic Capability and Cytotoxic Activity of Pheripheral Blood Lymphocytes in Psoriasis.- 16 The Effect of Etretinate on Chemotactic Activity of Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes in Various Forms of Psoriasis.- Section 3: Special Examinations with the Retinoids.- 17 Spermatological Examinations in Males Treated with Etretinate.- 18 Effects of Oral Retinoids on Enzyme Activities of Rat Intestinal and Kidney Tubular Epithelium.- Section 4: Retinoids and Neoplasia.- 19 Detection of Precancerous Bronchial Metaplasia in Heavy Smokers and its Regression after Treatment with a Retinoid.- 20 Cutaneous Neoplasia and Etretinate.- 21 Cutaneous Neoplasia and the Retinoids.- Section 5: Isotretinoin Clinical and Laboratory.- 22 A Dose Response Study of 13-cis-Retinoic Acid Therapy in Cystic Acne.- 23 Isotretinoin in the Treatment of Acne.- 24 The Overall USA Experience of Retinoids in Acne.- Section 6: Isotretinoin Duration of Remission of Acne.- 25 Relapse Rate of Acne Conglobata after Stopping Isotretinoin.- 26 A Follow-up Study of 13-cis-Retinoic Acid Therapy in Cystic Acne.- Section 7: Isotretinoin Mechanism of Action.- 27 13-cis-Retinoic Acid in Acne Mechanism of Action.- 28 Effect of 13-cis-Retinoic Acid and Cyproterone Acetate on Acne Severity, Sebum Excretion Rate, Dermal and Epidermal Lipogenesis, Serum Lipids and Liver Function Tests.- 29 Isotretinoin and Oral Contraceptive Steroids.- Section 8: Comparisons of Isotretinoin with other Drugs in the Treatment of Severe Acne.- 30 Comparison of Isotretinoin and Cyproterone Acetate a Clinical and Laboratory Study.- 31 A Comparative Study of 13-cis-Retinoic Acid and Erythromycin Therapy in Severe Acne.- 32 Use of Isotretinoin in Severe Cases with Papular Pustular Acne.- Section 9: other uses of Isotretinoin.- 33 The Use of Isotretinoin in Rosacea.- 34 Use of Isotretinoin in the Ichthyoses.- Section 10: New Aspects of Retinoid Therapy.- 35 Response of Psoriatic Arthropathy to Arotinoid (Ro 13-6298): A Pilot Study.- 36 Anti-Inflammatory Effects of the Retinoids.- 37 No Influence of Three Synthetic Retinoids (Ro 10-1670, Ro 4-3780, Ro 13-6298) on Lipoxygenase Activity in Two in Vitro Systems.- 38 The Management of Cystic, Conglobate and Severe Acne Irresponsive to Systemic Antibiotics with Roaccutane.