ISBN-10:
0131504878
ISBN-13:
2900131504874
Pub. Date:
07/28/2004
Publisher:
Prentice Hall
Roman Art: Romulus to Constantine / Edition 4

Roman Art: Romulus to Constantine / Edition 4

by Nancy Ramage
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Overview

Ideal for readers who are studying Roman art for the first time, this exceptionally well-illustrated volume explores Roman art in the traditional historical manner—with a focus on painting, sculpture, architecture, and minor arts. It assumes no prior acquaintance with the classical world, and explains the necessary linguistic, historical, religious, social, and political background needed to fully understand Roman art. The authors present the history of Roman Art from the following time periods: Etruscan Forerunners 100-200 BC.; The Roman Republic 509-27 BC.; Augustus and the Imperial Idea 27 BC-AD 14; The Julio-Claudians AD 14-68; The Flavians: Savior to Despot AD 69-98; Trajan; Optimus Princeps AD 98-117; Hadrian and the Classical Revival AD 117-138; The Antonines AD 138-193; The Severans AD 193-235; The Soldier Emperors AD 235-284; The Tetrarchs AD 284-312; Constantine AD 307-337 and the Aftermath.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 2900131504874
Publisher: Prentice Hall
Publication date: 07/28/2004
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 368
Product dimensions: 6.00(w) x 1.25(h) x 9.00(d)

About the Author

Nancy H. Ramage is Charles A. Dana Professor in the Humanities and Arts at Ithaca College and in 2000 received the Excellence in Teaching award. She has been a trustee of the Archaeological Institute of America and a member of numerous advisory boards of classical organizations and journals, including the American Journal of Archaeology and Etruscan Studies. She sits on the council of the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences at Harvard University and was recently elected a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of London. She received her doctorate from Harvard University and has wide experience as a lecturer, writer, and museum consultant. She co-authored two books on material from the excavations at Sardis, and has written many articles on antiquity and its reception in the 18th century.

Andrew Ramage is Professor of the History of Art and Archaeology at Cornell University. He has been the Director of the Archaeology Program at Cornell, Department Chair, and is Associate Director of the Harvard/Comell Archaeological Exploration of Sardis. He is a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of London. A Harvard University Ph.D., he has written Lydian Houses and Architectural Terracattas (1978); King Croesus's Gold: Excavations at Sardis and the History of Gold Refining with P. T. Craddock (2000); and A Guide to the Classical Collections of Cornell University with P. I. Kuniholm and N. H. Ramage (2003).

Read an Excerpt

PREFACE:

Preface

This book grows from three roots: first, our teaching, which, time and again, has proven to be a rich field for learning, and for thinking of ways to explain a problem in as straightforward a manner as possible; secondly, our firsthand experience working at Roman sites, primarily in England, Italy, and Turkey; and thirdly, the frequent discussions we hold about Roman affairs – at the bottom of a trench, or over the dinner table. Nancy Ramage's participation in the work of the British School at Rome enabled her to live, so to speak, with the art and the ruins; and our joint work at Sardis, Turkey, has given us the opportunity to participate in an on-going excavation, and to see the results of a group effort unfold over many years.

The book is intended first and foremost for students and readers who are launching into the study of Roman art perhaps for the first time. We assume intelligent readers, but we have tried to explain what may riot be obvious in terms of background, be it linguistic, historical, or religious. With a view to showing something of the long study of Roman monuments, we have chosen some of the illustrations from older photographs, engravings, and drawings, which seem to capture the spirit better than modern ones. The architectural remains have been cited and illustrated as their importance requires, but we have tried to illustrate sculpture or painting from collections in the United States, Britain, and Canada, where possible, so that North American and British students will have a better chance of looking at some of the originals.

Of the many scholars who taught us about Roman art, we wouldespecially like to share our warm appreciation here for the inspiration of several mentors who are no longer living: Doris Taylor Bishop, George M. A. Hanfmann, A. H. McDonald, and John B. Ward-Perkins. For specific ideas, we gratefully acknowledge assistance from Ellen, Roger, and Edward Hirschland, David Castriota, J. Stephens Crawford, Caroline Houser, Barbara K. McLauchlin, Elizabeth J. Sherman, Andrew Stewart, Susan Woodford, and the anonymous readers for the press, who made many valuable suggestions. We are also grateful to Norwell F. Therien, Jr., at Prentice Hall, and to Rosemary Bradley and Ursula Sadie at Calmann and King, London, for their outstanding assistance. Our children, Joan and Michael, have been most patient and supportive. We also thank our friends and colleagues with whom we have discussed problems of Roman art - but do not saddle them with responsibility for the positions taken here. And finally, we dedicate this book to the memory of our respective fathers, optimis patribus, each of whom set us upon the Roman road.

PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION

The authors would like to extend their sincere thanks to those friends and scholars who have provided suggestions and ideas for the second edition. Among them are: Frederick M. Ahl, Elizabeth Bartman, Larissa Bonfante, Richard Brilliant, Nancy T. de Grummond, James Higginbotham, Catherine HobeyHamsher, Mary Hollinshead, Eric Hostetter, Michael Koortbojian, Robert D. Markham, Carol C. Mattusch, John G. Pedlep, Roberto Marini, Christopher Parslow, Christopher Simon, E. Marianne Stern, Alice Taylor, Rolf Winkes, Susan Wood, and Susan Woodford; and Elisabeth Ingles, for her help in the final stages.

Nancy Ramage would also like to record her appreciation to the National Endowment for the Humanities, and to Elaine Gazda and Miranda Marvin, for the opportunity to participate in a seminar in Rome on "The Roman Art of Emulation."

Finally, we thank our students, near and far, for their helpful and gratifying comments; after all, we wrote this book for them in the first place.

PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION

What greater satisfaction for two authors than to know that not only American and British students and members of the public are learning from our book, but now, also, students and others who speak French, German, Dutch, and Greek . . . and maybe other languages to come. We are immensely gratified and humbled by this development, and it has been a great pleasure to write the third edition, attempting always to keep the text and the pictures up to standard.

We are most grateful to those who have shared observations with us for this latest edition, including Albert Ammerman, Elizabeth Bartman, Kevin Glowacki, Naomi Norman, Paul Rehak, Christopher Roosevelt, Susan Schilling, Jocelyn Penny Small, R. J. A. Wilson, Susan Woodford, Fikret Yegul and especially Carol Mattusch and Richard Mason; and Elisabeth Ingles, Susan Bolsom and Ursula Payne for their fine work on the book. Nancy Ramage would also like to acknowledge her appreciation to Ithaca College for a Faculty Summer Research Grant to help in the preparation of this edition. And we thank our students at Ithaca College and Cornell University for their intelligent and thoughtful comments and lively discussions through many courses taught over the years.

We dedicate this book to the memory of our four parents, including, this time, our mothers, who lived to see the book and who shared with us our joy in its wide readership.

Table of Contents

Contents

Roman Emperors

Roman Gods and Goddesses and their Greek Equivalents

Preface

Timeline

Introduction

The Land

Map of the Roman world in the second century ad

Chronology

Topographical map of Italy

The Political Framework

The Republic

The Empire

City of Rome, plan

Art in the Service of the State

Fascism and Propaganda

The Romans’ Acquisition of Art Objects

Art for Private Patrons

Archaeological Ethics

Restoration and Forgery

Winckelmann and 18th-century Restorations

Spotlight: The De-restoration of Roman Sculpture

The History of Collecting

Rescue Excavations

Illegal Excavation and Export of Antiquities

Rome and Greek Art

Three Periods of Greek Art

Interconnections

1 The Etruscan Forerunners 1000–200 bc

The Etruscans: The Villanovan Phase

Map of Italy

The Etruscans: The Historical Phase

Architecture

Tombs

Spotlight: The Etruscan ABC

Temples

Domestic Buildings

The Written Record: The cult statue in the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus

Sculpture

Temple Terracottas

Animal Sculpture

Funerary Sculpture

Statuary

Portraits

Painting

Bronze Articles

Rome, the Etruscans, and Latium

Stories of Early Rome

2 The Roman Republic 509–27 bc

Architecture

Villas and Houses

Sanctuaries

Temples

Waterworks

The Cloaca Maxima

The Written Record: A visit to the Cloaca Maxima

Town Planning

The “Servian” Wall

The Roman Forum

The Castrum

Sculpture

Sarcophagi

Historical Relief Sculpture

Portraiture

Spotlight: Caesar Crosses the Rubicon

Wall Paintings

House Walls

Four Pompeian Styles

Mosaics

3 Augustus and the Imperial Idea 27 bc–ad 14

Architecture

The Forum and Mausoleum of Augustus

Spotlight: Cleopatra and the Battle of Actium

The Written Record: What did it look like in downtown Rome?

The Written Record: The Appian Way

A Round Bath Building

A Temple in Gaul

Theaters

The Arch

Monuments Along a Renovated Roadway

An Aqueduct

A City in Spain

Sculpture

Portraits

Reliefs

Wall Paintings

Stucco

4 The Julio-Claudians ad 14–68

The Gemma Augustea

Imperial Patronage in the Provinces

Imperial Architecture and Sculpture

Another Version of the Blinding of Polyphemus

Portraits

The Other Julio-Claudians

Spotlight: Damnatio Memoriae and the Recarving of Roman Portraits

Ordinary Citizens

Sculpture

Piety

The Imperial Hero

Public Works

Aqueducts

The Written Record: Theft of water by insiders

Architecture

The Underground Basilica

Nero’s Golden House

The Written Record: The painter in his toga

5 The Flavians: Savior to Despot ad 69–98

Vespasian

Imperial Architecture

The Colosseum

The Stadium of Domitian

The Arch of Titus

The Written Record: The spoils of war in Jerusalem

The Flavian Palace

Sculpture

Imperial Reliefs

Private Reliefs

Portraits

Spotlight: Plaster Cast of a Dying Dog

The Written Record: The death of Pliny the Elder

Pompeii and Herculaneum

The City of Pompeii

Paintings in the Fourth Pompeian Style

Art for the Middle Classes

6 Trajan, Optimus Princeps ad 98–117

The Baths of Trajan

The Written Record: Trajan’s generosity

The Forum and Markets of Trajan

The Column of Trajan

Spotlight: An Influential Latin Inscription

Other Trajanic Sculptural Relief

The Arch of Trajan at Benevento

The Provinces

A Great Bridge

Timgad

7 Hadrian and the Classical Revival ad 117–138

Architecture

Hadrian’s Villa

The Pantheon

Other Hadrianic Buildings

Spotlight: The Grand Tour and Hadrianic Monuments

Portraits

The Written Record: The death of Antinous through a superstitious lens

Reliefs

Sarcophagi

Sarcophagi from Rome and Athens

Asiatic Sarcophagi

8 The Antonines ad 138–193

The Antonine Family

The Reign of Antoninus Pius

Portraits

Architecture

The Reign of Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus

Portraits

The Written Record: Marcus Aurelius’ Meditations

The Base of the Column of Antoninus Pius

Panels from a Triumphal Arch

The Column of Marcus Aurelius

Sarcophagi

Spotlight: Religions of Mystery and Ecstasy

The Reign of Commodus

9 The Severans ad 193–235

The Reign of Septimius Severus

Spotlight: The Syrian Princesses

Portraits

Triumphal Arches

Architecture in Distant Lands

The Written Record: A 17th-century traveler visits Baalbek

The Reign of Caracalla

Public Baths

Sarcophagi

10 The Soldier Emperors ad 235–284

Spotlight: The Army Chooses the Emperor

Coins

Portraits

Maximinus Thrax

Balbinus

Philip the Arab

Trebonianus Gallus

A Female Portrait

Gallienus

Aurelian

The Aurelian Wall

The Written Record: The rise and fall of a reluctant soldier emperor

Sarcophagi

A Domestic Quarter and its Paintings

11 The Tetrarchs ad 284–312

The Establishment of the Tetrarchy

Architecture in Spalato

Spotlight: Catacombs and the Good Shepherd

The Written Record: The Good Shepherd

The Written Record: A visit to the catacombs

Architecture in Rome

Architecture in Northern Greece

Mosaics

Portraiture

Decennalia Relief

12 Constantine and the Aftermath ad 307–337

Late Antique Art

Imperial Monuments

The Arch of Constantine

The Written Record: The Edict of Milan and religious tolerance

The Base of the Obelisk of Theodosius

Portraits

Spotlight: Christ and Christianity

Architecture

Sarcophagi

Luxury Arts

Conclusion

Ancient Authors

Glossary

Select Bibliography

Illustration Credits

Index

Preface

PREFACE:

Preface

This book grows from three roots: first, our teaching, which, time and again, has proven to be a rich field for learning, and for thinking of ways to explain a problem in as straightforward a manner as possible; secondly, our firsthand experience working at Roman sites, primarily in England, Italy, and Turkey; and thirdly, the frequent discussions we hold about Roman affairs – at the bottom of a trench, or over the dinner table. Nancy Ramage's participation in the work of the British School at Rome enabled her to live, so to speak, with the art and the ruins; and our joint work at Sardis, Turkey, has given us the opportunity to participate in an on-going excavation, and to see the results of a group effort unfold over many years.

The book is intended first and foremost for students and readers who are launching into the study of Roman art perhaps for the first time. We assume intelligent readers, but we have tried to explain what may riot be obvious in terms of background, be it linguistic, historical, or religious. With a view to showing something of the long study of Roman monuments, we have chosen some of the illustrations from older photographs, engravings, and drawings, which seem to capture the spirit better than modern ones. The architectural remains have been cited and illustrated as their importance requires, but we have tried to illustrate sculpture or painting from collections in the United States, Britain, and Canada, where possible, so that North American and British students will have a better chance of looking at some of the originals.

Of the many scholars who taught us about Roman art, wewouldespecially like to share our warm appreciation here for the inspiration of several mentors who are no longer living: Doris Taylor Bishop, George M. A. Hanfmann, A. H. McDonald, and John B. Ward-Perkins. For specific ideas, we gratefully acknowledge assistance from Ellen, Roger, and Edward Hirschland, David Castriota, J. Stephens Crawford, Caroline Houser, Barbara K. McLauchlin, Elizabeth J. Sherman, Andrew Stewart, Susan Woodford, and the anonymous readers for the press, who made many valuable suggestions. We are also grateful to Norwell F. Therien, Jr., at Prentice Hall, and to Rosemary Bradley and Ursula Sadie at Calmann and King, London, for their outstanding assistance. Our children, Joan and Michael, have been most patient and supportive. We also thank our friends and colleagues with whom we have discussed problems of Roman art - but do not saddle them with responsibility for the positions taken here. And finally, we dedicate this book to the memory of our respective fathers, optimis patribus, each of whom set us upon the Roman road.

PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION

The authors would like to extend their sincere thanks to those friends and scholars who have provided suggestions and ideas for the second edition. Among them are: Frederick M. Ahl, Elizabeth Bartman, Larissa Bonfante, Richard Brilliant, Nancy T. de Grummond, James Higginbotham, Catherine HobeyHamsher, Mary Hollinshead, Eric Hostetter, Michael Koortbojian, Robert D. Markham, Carol C. Mattusch, John G. Pedlep, Roberto Marini, Christopher Parslow, Christopher Simon, E. Marianne Stern, Alice Taylor, Rolf Winkes, Susan Wood, and Susan Woodford; and Elisabeth Ingles, for her help in the final stages.

Nancy Ramage would also like to record her appreciation to the National Endowment for the Humanities, and to Elaine Gazda and Miranda Marvin, for the opportunity to participate in a seminar in Rome on "The Roman Art of Emulation."

Finally, we thank our students, near and far, for their helpful and gratifying comments; after all, we wrote this book for them in the first place.

PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION

What greater satisfaction for two authors than to know that not only American and British students and members of the public are learning from our book, but now, also, students and others who speak French, German, Dutch, and Greek . . . and maybe other languages to come. We are immensely gratified and humbled by this development, and it has been a great pleasure to write the third edition, attempting always to keep the text and the pictures up to standard.

We are most grateful to those who have shared observations with us for this latest edition, including Albert Ammerman, Elizabeth Bartman, Kevin Glowacki, Naomi Norman, Paul Rehak, Christopher Roosevelt, Susan Schilling, Jocelyn Penny Small, R. J. A. Wilson, Susan Woodford, Fikret Yegul and especially Carol Mattusch and Richard Mason; and Elisabeth Ingles, Susan Bolsom and Ursula Payne for their fine work on the book. Nancy Ramage would also like to acknowledge her appreciation to Ithaca College for a Faculty Summer Research Grant to help in the preparation of this edition. And we thank our students at Ithaca College and Cornell University for their intelligent and thoughtful comments and lively discussions through many courses taught over the years.

We dedicate this book to the memory of our four parents, including, this time, our mothers, who lived to see the book and who shared with us our joy in its wide readership.

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