Pub. Date:
Artech House, Incorporated
Silicon-Germanium Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors

Silicon-Germanium Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors

by John D. Cressler, Guofu Niu, Guofo Niu
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This informative, new resource presents the first comprehensive treatment of silicon-germanium heterojunction bipolar transistors (SiGe HBTs). It offers you a complete, from-the-ground-up understanding of SiGe HBT devices and technology, from a very broad perspective. The book covers motivation, history, materials, fabrication, device physics, operational principles, and circuit-level properties associated with this new cutting-edge semiconductor device technology. Including over 400 equations and more than 300 illustrations, this hands-on reference shows you in clear and concise language how to design, simulate, fabricate, and measure a SiGe HBT.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781580533614
Publisher: Artech House, Incorporated
Publication date: 12/31/2002
Edition description: New Edition
Pages: 588
Product dimensions: 6.14(w) x 9.21(h) x 1.31(d)

About the Author

John D. Cressler is Professor of electrical and computer engineering at The Georgia Institute of Technology . Professor Cressler received his Ph.D. in applied physics from Columbia University. Guofu Niu is Associate Professor of electrical and computer engineering at Auburn University. He received his Ph.D. in electrical engineering from Fudan University, in Shanghai, China.

Table of Contents

Preface. Introduction - The Magic of Silicon. Integrated Circuit Needs for the 21st Century. Application-Induced Design Constraints. The Dream: Bandgap Engineering in Silicon. The SiGe HBT. A Brief History of SiGe Technology. SiGe HBT Performance Trends. The IC Technology Battleground: Si vs SiGe vs III-V. The Bottom Line. SiGe Strained-Layer Epitaxy - Bulk Si and Ge. SiGe Alloys. Stability Constraints. Band Structure. Transport Parameters. Open Issues. The Bottom Line. SiGe HBT BiCMOS Technology - Integration Issues. SiGe HBT Structural Evolution. Profile Control and Design Tradeoffs. Carbon Doping of SiGe HBTs. Reliability Issues. CMOS Integration. Passives. The Bottom Line. dc Behavior - Intuitive Picture. Collector Current Density and Current Gain. Output Conductance. Equivalent Circuit Models. Avalanche Multiplication. Breakdown Voltages. The Bottom Line. Dynamic Behavior - Intuitive Picture. Charge Storage Effects. High-Frequency Equivalent. Circuit Models. Linear Two-Port Parameters. ac Figures-of-Merit. Base and Emitter Transit Times. ECL Gate Delay. The Bottom Line. Second Order Phenomena - Ge Grading Effects. Neutral Base Recombination. Heterojunction Barrier Effects. Noise - Fundamental Noise Characteristics. Linear Noisy Two-port Network Theory. Analytical Modeling. Optimal Sizing and Biasing for LNA Design. SiGe Profile Design Tradeoffs. Low-Frequency 1/f Noise. Substrate and Cross-Talk Noise. The Bottom Line. Linearity - Nonlinearity Concepts. Physical Nonlinearities. Volterra Series. Single HBT Amplifier Linearity. Cascode LNA Linearity. The Bottom Line. Temperature Effects - The Impact of Temperature on Bipolar Transistor Properties. Cryogenic Operation of SiGe HBTs. Optimization of SiGe HBTs for 77 K. Helium Temperature Operation. Non-Equilibrium Base Transport. High-Temperature Operation. The Bottom Line. Other Device Design Issues - Design of p-n-p SiGe HBTs. Arbitrary Band Alignments. Ge-Induced CB Field Effects. The Bottom Line. Radiation Tolerance - Radiation Concepts and Damage Mechanisms. The Effects of Radiation on SiGe HBTs. Technology Scaling Issues. Circuit-level Tolerance. Single Event Upset. The Bottom Line. Device Simulation - Semiconductor Equations. Application Issues. Probing Internal Device Operation. The Bottom Line. Future Directions - Profile Scaling and Integration Issues. Performance Limits. Other Si-Based Material Systems. The Bottom Line. Appendices - Operational Principles of Bipolar Transistors. Analysis of the Ideal Bipolar Transistor. High-Injection in Bipolar Transistors. The Generalized Moll-Ross Relations. Basic RF Concepts. Carrier Freeze-out. Measurement "Tricks-of-the-Trade."

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