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Bedford/St. Martin's
The Bedford Anthology of World Literature: The Modern World, 1650 - The Present

The Bedford Anthology of World Literature: The Modern World, 1650 - The Present

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Designed to offer a clear, concise, and accessible way to explore the familiar and unfamiliar territories of world literature, this two-volume version of The Bedford Anthology of World Literature offers students and teachers a broad and carefully balanced selection of literary works supported by extensive historical background and generous contextual materials.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780312441548
Publisher: Bedford/St. Martin's
Publication date: 11/21/2008
Edition description: Compact
Pages: 1872
Product dimensions: 6.90(w) x 9.10(h) x 2.00(d)

About the Author

Paul Davis (Ph.D., University of Wisconsin), professor emeritus of English at the University of New Mexico, has been the recipient of several teaching awards and academic honors, including that of Master teacher. He has taught courses since 1962 in composition, rhetoric, and nineteenth-century literature and has written and edited many scholarly books, including The Penguin Dickens Companion (1999), Dickens A to Z (1998), and The Lives and Times of Ebenezer Scrooge (1990). He has also written numerous scholarly and popular articles on solar energy and Victorian book illustration. His most recent book is Critical Companion to Charles Dickens (2007).

Gary Harrison (Ph.D., Stanford University), professor and director of graduate studies at the University of New Mexico, has won numerous fellowships and awards for scholarship and teaching. He has taught courses in world literature, British Romanticism, and literary theory at the University of New Mexico since 1987. Harrison's publications include a critical study of William Wordsworth, Wordsworth's Vagrant Muse: Poetry, Poverty, and Power (1994); as well as several articles on topics such as John Clare's poetry, Romanticism and Ecology, nineteenth-century culture, and teaching world literature.

David M. Johnson (Ph.D., University of Connecticut), professor emeritus of English at the University of New Mexico, has taught courses in world literature, mythology, the Bible as literature, philosophy and literature, and creative writing since 1965. He has written, edited, and contributed to numerous scholarly books and collections of poetry, including Fire in the Fields (1996) and Lord of the Dawn: The Legend of Quetzalcoatl (1987). He has also published scholarly articles, poetry, and translations of Nahuatl myths. His most recent book of poetry is Rebirth of Wonder: Poems of The Common Life (University of New Mexico Press, 2007).

John F. Crawford (Ph.D., Columbia University; postdoctoral studies, Yale University), associate professor of English emeritus at the University of New Mexico, has taught medieval, world, and other literature courses since 1965 at a number of other institutions including California Institute of Technology and Hunter College and Herbert Lehmann College of CUNY. The publisher of West End Press, an independent literary press with 120 titles, Crawford has also edited This Is About Vision: Interviews with Southwestern Writers (1990) and written articles on multicultural literature of the Southwest.

Table of Contents

VOLUME 2: The Modern World (1650–Present)

[*denotes complete longer works]


About the Editors

Pronunciation Key



*Tartuffe (Translated by Richard Wilbur)

PU SONG-LING [b.China, 1640–1715]

The Mural (Translated by Denis C. Mair and Victor H. Mair)


Text in Context: Narrow Road through the Backcountry

MATSUO BASHO [b. Japan, 1644–1694]

*Narrow Road through the Backcountry (Translated by Richard Bodner)

In the World: Travel and Cultural Encounter

EVLIYA ÇELEBI [b. Turkey, 1611–1684]

from The Book of Travels (Translated by Robert Dankoff)

LADY MARY WORTLEY MONTAGU [b. England, 1689–1762]

from The Turkish Letters

DENIS DIDEROT [b. France, 1713–1784]

from Supplement to the Voyage of Bougainville (Translated by Jean Stewart and Jonathan Kemp)

MIRZA ABU TALEB KHAN [b. India, 1759–?1806]

from Travels of Mirza Abu Taleb Khan (Translated by Charles Stewart)


SOR JUANA INÉS DE LA CRUZ [b. Mexico, 1648–1695]

Love, at first, Is Fashioned of Agitation (Translated by S. G. Morley)

The Rhetoric of Tears (Translated by Frank J. Warnke)

*Response to Sor Filotea (Translated by Margaret Sayers Peden)

JONATHAN SWIFT [b. Ireland, 1667–1745]

from Gulliver’s Travels

Part IV: A Voyage to the Country of the Houyhnhnms

ALEXANDER POPE [b. England, 1688–1744]

An Essay on Man

Epistle 1

from Epistle 2

from Epistle 3


Text in Context: Candide


*Candide (Translated by Daniel Gordon)

In the World: Enlightenment and the Spirit of Inquiry

RENÉ DESCARTES [b. France, 1596–1650]

from Discourse on Method (Translated by Elizabeth S. Haldane and G. R. T. Ross)

JOHN LOCKE [b. England, 1632–1704]

from The Second Treatise on Government

BAIEN MIURA [b. Japan, 1723–1789]

from Reply to Taga Bokkei (Translated by Rosemary Mercer)

IMMANUEL KANT [b. Germany, 1724–1804]

An Answer to the Question: What is Enlightenment? (Translated by Mary J. Gregor)

THOMAS JEFFERSON [b. United States, 1743–1826]

Declaration of Independence

MARY WOLLSTONECRAFT [b. England, 1759–1797]

from A Vindication of the Rights of Woman


JEAN JACQUES ROUSSEAU [b. France, 1712–1778]

Confessions (Translator anonymous)

from Book 1

RAMPRASAD SEN [b. India, 1718–1775]

It’s This Hope in Hope

The Dark Mother is Flying a Kite

Kali, Why Are You Naked Again?

Now Cry Kali and Take the Plunge!

Why Should I Go to Kashi?

What’s More to Fear

(Translated by Leonard Nathan and Clinton Seely)


Text in Context: The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano

OLAUDAH EQUIANO [b. Africa, 1745–1797]

The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa the African

from Chapter 1 [Equiano’s Igbo Roots]

from Chapter 2 [Captivity and Slavery; The Slave Ship]

from Chapter 3 [Sold to Captain Pascal; A New Name]

from Chapter 4 [Baptism and the Desire for Freedom]

from Chapter 5 [Sold to Robert King; The Horrors of the West Indies]

from Chapter 7 [Freedom]

from Chapter 9 [London; Self-Improvement]

from Chapter 10 [Conversion]

from Chapter 12 [Conclusion]

In the World: Slave Narratives and Emancipation

HARRIET A. JACOBS (LINDA BRENT) [b. United States, c. 1813–1897]

Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl

from Chapter 1: Childhood

from Chapter 2: The New Master and Mistress

from Chapter 5: The Trials of Girlhood

from Chapter 6: The Jealous Mistress

Chapter 10: A Perilous Passage in the Slave Girl’s Life

from Chapter 21: The Loophole of Retreat

from Chapter 23: Still in Prison

from Chapter 29: Preparations for Escape

from Chapter 30: Northward Bound

FREDERICK DOUGLASS [b. United States, 1818?–1895]

Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, Written by Himself

Chapter I: [Childhood]

from Chapter II: [Great House Farm]

from Chapter V: [Move to Baltimore]

from Chapter VI: [Learning to Read and Write]

Chapter VII: [Literacy]

from Chapter X: [Attempted Escape]

from Chapter XI: [Freedom]

Emancipation Proclaimed

AFRICAN AMERICAN FOLK SONGS [United States, eighteenth century–early nineteenth century]

Go Down, Moses

Deep River

Follow the Drinkin’ Gourd

Sometimes I Feel Like a Motherless Chile

Hold On!

John Henry


Text in Context: Faust

JOHANN WOLFGANG VON GOETHE [b. Germany, 1749–1832]

Faust (Translated by Charles E. Passage)

Prologue in Heaven

from The First Part of the Tragedy

The Second Part of the Tragedy

from Act One

Act Five

In the World: Faust and the Romantic Hero

ALESSANDRO MANZONI [b. Italy, 1785–1873]

The Fifth of May (Translated by Joseph Tusiani)

GEORGE GORDON (LORD BYRON) [b. England, 1788–1824]

from Childe Harold's Pilgrimage

Canto III, 36-45: [Napoleon]

JOHN GREENLEAF WHITTIER [b. United States, 1807–1892]

from Toussaint L’Ouverture

FRIEDRICH NIETZSCHE [b. Germany, 1844–1900]

from The Gay Science (Translated by Walter Kaufmann)

283: Preparatory Men

from Thus Spoke Zarathustra (Translated by Walter Kaufmann)

First Part: 3 [The Superman]

INAZO NITOBÉ [b. Japan, 1862–1933]

from Bushido: The Soul of Japan


WILLIAM WORDSWORTH [b. England, 1770–1850]

from Lyrical Ballads

Expostulation and Reply

The Tables Turned

Lines Composed a Few Miles Above Tintern Abbey

A Slumber Did My Spirit Seal

The World is Too Much With Us

Composed upon Westminster Bridge, September 3, 1802

Ode: Intimations of Immortality


In the Tradition: The Romantic Lyric

CHARLOTTE SMITH [b. England, 1749–1806]

Written in the Church-Yard at Middleton in Sussex

The Sea View

WILLIAM BLAKE [b. England, 1757–1827]

from Songs of Innocence


The Lamb

The Chimney Sweeper

Holy Thursday

from Songs of Experience


Earth’s Answer

Holy Thursday

The Chimney Sweeper

The Tyger


FRIEDRICH HÖLDERLIN [b. Germany, 1770–1843]

The Half of Life

Hyperion’s Song of Fate

(Translated by Christopher Middleton)


from Hymns to the Night (Translated by Charles Passage)

Yearning for Death

ALPHONSE DE LAMARTINE [b. France, 1790–1869]

The Lake (Translated by Andrea Moorhead)

JOHN KEATS [b. England, 1795–1821]

On First Looking into Chapman’s Homer

Ode to a Nightingale

Ode on a Grecian Urn

ANNETTE VON DROSTE-HÜLSHOFF [b. Germany, 1797–1848]

On the Tower (Translated by Ruth Kluger)

In the Grass (Translated by James Edward Tobin)

HEINRICH HEINE [b. Germany, 1797–1856]

A Spruce is Standing Lonely (Translated by Gary Harrison)

The Minnesingers (Translated by Louis Untermeyer)

The Silesian Weavers (Translated by Aaron Kramer)

The Asra (Translated by Ernst Feise)

GIACOMO LEOPARDI [b. Italy, 1798–1837]

The Infinite (Translated by Ottavio M. Casale)

To Sylvia (Translated by Ottavio M. Casale)

The Solitary Thrush (Translated by Eamon Grennan)

ROSALÍA DE CASTRO [b. Spain, 1837–1885]

I Tend a Beautiful Plant (Translated by Lou Charnon Deutsch)

It Is Said Plants Cannot Speak (Translated by Lou Charnon Deutsch)

A Glowworm Scatters Flashes through the Moss (Translated by S. Griswold Morley)

The Ailing Woman Felt Her Forces Ebb (Translated by S. Griswold Morley)


SAMUEL TAYLOR COLERIDGE [b. England, 1772–1834]

*The Rime of the Ancient Mariner

Kubla Khan


The drop dies in the river (Translated by W.S. Merwin)

Why didn’t I shrink in the blaze of that face? (Translated by Adrienne Rich)

Is it you, O God? (Translated by Adrienne Rich)

It is a long time since my love stayed with me here (Translated by W.S. Merwin)

There are a thousand desires like this (Translated by W.S. Merwin)

Don’t Skimp with Me Today (Translated by Roberty Bly with Sunil Dutta)

A Lamp in a Strong Wind (Translated by Robert Bly with Sunil Dutta)

ALEXANDER PUSHKIN [b. Russia, 1799–1837]

*The Bronze Horseman (Translated by D. M. Thomas)

WALT WHITMAN [b. United States, 1819–1892]

from Song of Myself

1, 2, 5, 6, 16, 17, 21, 24, 31, 32, 48-52

Facing West from California’s Shores


HERMAN MELVILLE [b. United States, 1819–1891]

*Bartleby the Scrivener

CHARLES BAUDELAIRE [b. France, 1821–1867]

To the Reader (Translated by Stanley Kunitz)

The Albatross (Translated by Richard Wilbur)

Correspondences (Translated by Richard Wilbur)

Hymn to Beauty (Translated by Dorothy Martin)

Carrion (Translated by Richard Howard)

GUSTAVE FLAUBERT [b. France, 1821–1880]

*A Simple Heart (Translated by Arthur McDowall)

FYODOR DOSTOEVSKY [b. Russia, 1821–1881]

from The Brothers Karamazov (Translated by Constance Garnett)

The Grand Inquisitor


Text in Context: The Death of Ivan Ilych

LEO TOLSTOY [b. Russia, 1828–1910]

*The Death of Ivan Ilych (Translated by David Magarshack)

In the World: Society and Its Discontents

CHARLES DICKENS [b. England, 1812–1870]

from Our Mutual Friend

from Chapter XI: Podsnappery

KARL MARX [b. Germany, 1818–1883]

FRIEDRICH ENGELS [b. Germany, 1820–1895]

from The Communist Manifesto (Translated by Samuel Moore)

I. Bourgeois and Proletarians

GUY DE MAUPASSANT [b. France, 1850–1893]

Regret (Translated by Roger Colet)

FRIEDRICH NIETZSCHE [b. Germany, 1844–1900]

from The Gay Science (Translated by Walter Kaufmann)

[The Madman]

ÉMILE ZOLA [b. France, 1840–1902]

from Preface to the Second Edition of Thérèse Raquin (Translated by Leonard Tancock)

INAZO NITOBÉ [b. Japan, 1862–1933]

from Bushido: The Soul of Japan


Text in Context: A Doll’s House

HENRIK IBSEN [b. Norway, 1828–1906]

*A Doll’s House (Translated by William Archer)

In the World: The Emancipation of Women

EMILIA PARDO BAZÁN [b. Spain, 1852–1921]

The Revolver (Translated by Angel Flores)


The Thirteenth Night (Jusan’ya) (Translated by Robert Lyons Danly)

RASSUNDARI DEVI [b. India, 1810–?]

from Amar Jiban (My Life) (Translated by Tanika Sarkar)


EMILY DICKINSON [b. United States, 1830–1886]

I know that He exists

I never lost as much but twice

A narrow Fellow in the Grass

Split the Lark—and you’ll find the Music—

Safe in their Alabaster Chambers

I died for Beauty

The Brain is wider than the Sky

I dwell in Possibility

I like to see it lap the Miles

I heard a Fly buzz

In Winter in my Room

They shut me up in Prose

Much Madness is divinest Sense—

I like a look of Agony

Wild Nights—Wild Nights!

My Life had stood—a Loaded Gun—

The Soul has Bandaged moments—

Success is counted sweetest


Text in Context: Heart of Darkness

JOSEPH CONRAD [b. Poland, 1857–1924]

*Heart of Darkness

In the World: Colonialism and Independence

RUDYARD KIPLING [b. India, 1865–1936]

The White Man’s Burden

GEORGE WASHINGTON WILLIAMS [b. United States, 1849–1891]

from An Open Letter to His Serene Majesty Leopold II

MARK TWAIN (SAMUEL CLEMENS) [b. United States, 1835–1910]

from King Leopold’s Soliloquy

RAJA RAO [b. India, 1909–2006]

Foreword to Kanthapura

JAWAHARLAL NEHRU [b. India, 1889–1964]

Speech on the Granting of Indian Independence, August 14, 1947


ANTON CHEKHOV [b. Russia, 1860–1904]

*The Cherry Orchard (Translated by David Magarshack)

RABINDRANATH TAGORE [b. India, 1861–1941]

*Broken Ties

WILLIAM BUTLER YEATS [b. Ireland, 1865–1939]

The Lake Isle of Innisfree

Easter 1916

The Second Coming

Sailing to Byzantium

Leda and the Swan

Among School Children

LU XUN [b. China, 1881–1936]

A Madman’s Diary (Translated by Yang Xianyi and Gladys Yang)

VIRGINIA WOOLF [b. England, 1882–1941]

from A Room of One’s Own

Chapter 3 [Shakespeare’s Sister]

Three Pictures

The Fascination of the Pool


Text in Context: The Metamorphosis

FRANZ KAFKA [b. Prague, 1883–1924]

*The Metamorphosis (Translated by J. A. Underwood)

In the World: Modernism

SIGMUND FREUD [b. Austria, 1856–1939]

from Origin and Development of Psycho-Analysis (Translated by Harry W. Chase)

T. S. ELIOT [b. United States, 1888–1965]

The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock

ANDRÉ BRETON [b. France, 1896–1966]

from The Surrealist Manifesto (Translated by Patrick Waldberg)

ABÉ KOBO [b. Japan, 1924–1993]

The Red Cocoon (Translated by Lane Dunlop)

GABRIEL GARCÍA MÁRQUEZ [b. Columbia, 1928]

A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings (Translated by Gregory Rabassa)


Text in Context: The Waste Land

T. S. ELIOT [b. United States, 1888–1965]

*The Waste Land

In the World: War, Conflict, and Resistance

YOSANO AKIKO [b. Japan, 1878–1942]

I Beg You, Brother: Do Not Die (Translated by Jay Rubin)

WILFRED OWEN [b. England, 1893–1918]

Dulce et Decorum Est

The Parable of the Old Man and the Young

ANNA AKHMATOVA [b. Russia, 1889–1966]

*Requiem (Translated by Judith Hemschemeyer)

NELLY SACHS [b. Germany, 1891–1970]

O the Chimneys (Translated by Michael Roloff)

PAUL CELAN [b. Romania, 1920–1970]

Death Fugue (Translated by John Felstiner)

TAMURA RYUICHI [b. Japan, 1923–1998]

A Vertical Coffin (Translated by Samuel Grolmes and Tsumura Yumiko)

WISLAWA SZYMBORSKA [b. Poland, 1923]

The Terrorist, He Watches (Translated by Robert A. Maguire and Magnus Jan Krynski)

ANDREI VOZNESENSKY [b. Russia, 1933]

I Am Goya (Translated by Stanley Kunitz)

TIM O’BRIEN [b. United States, 1946]

The Man I Killed

FADWA TUQAN [b. Palestine, 1917–2003]

Song of Becoming (Translated by Naomi Shihab Nye)

YEHUDA AMICHAI [b. Germany, 1924–2000]

God Has Pity on Kindergarten Children (Translated by Assia Gutmann)

MAHMOUD DARWISH [b. Palestine, 1941]

Victim Number 18

Identity Card

(Translated by Denys Johnson-Davies)

BEI DAO [b. China, 1949]

Declaration (Translated by Bonnie S. McDougall)


FEDERICO GARCÍA LORCA [b. Spain, 1898–1936]

Ode to Walt Whitman

Lament for Ignacio Sanchez Mejías

(Translated by Stephen Spender and J. L. Gili)

JORGE LUIS BORGES [b. Argentina, 1899–1986]

The Garden of the Forking Paths (Translated by Donald A. Yates)

PABLO NERUDA [b. Chile, 1904–1973]

Ode with a Lament (Translated by H. R. Hays)

Sexual Water (Translated by H. R. Hays)

Hymn and Return (Translated by Robert Bly)

The United Fruit Co. (Translated by Robert Bly)

The Heights of Macchu Picchu (Translated by Jack Schmitt)

Ode to Salt (Translated by Robert Bly)

Poet’s Obligation (Translated by Alastair Reid)

SAMUEL BECKETT [b. Ireland, 1906–1989]

Krapp’s Last Tape

NAGUIB MAHFOUZ [b. Egypt, 1911–2006]

Zaabalawi (Translated by Denys Johnson-Davies)

ALBERT CAMUS [b. Algeria, 1913–1960]

The Guest

The Myth of Sisyphus

(Translated by Justin O’Brien)


Text in Context: Things Fall Apart

CHINUA ACHEBE [b. Nigeria, 1930]

*Things Fall Apart

In the World: Images of Africa

W. E. B. DU BOIS [b. United States, 1868–1963]

from The Souls of Black Folk

CLAUDE MCKAY [b. Jamaica, 1889–1948]

To the White Fiends


LANGSTON HUGHES [b. United States, 1902–1967]

The Negro Speaks of Rivers

COUNTEE CULLEN [b. United States, 1903–1946]


LÉOPOLD SÉDAR SENGHOR [b. Senegal, 1906–2001]

Black Woman

Prayer to the Masks

(Translated by Melvin Dixon)

AIMÉ CÉSAIRE [b. Martinique, 1913]

from Notebook of a Return to the Native Land (Translated by Clayton Eshleman and Annette Smith)

GWENDOLYN BROOKS [b. United States, 1917–2000]

To the Diaspora

CHINUA ACHEBE [b. Nigeria, 1930]

An Image of Africa


DEREK WALCOTT [b. St. Lucia, 1930]

A Latin Primer

White Magic

The Light of the World

For Pablo Neruda

ALIFA RIFAAT [b. Egypt, 1930]

My World of the Unknown (Translated by Denys Johnson-Davies)

SALMAN RUSHDIE [b. India, 1947]

The Courter

EDWIDGE DANTICAT [b. Haiti, 1969]

Children of the Sea

Glossary of Literary and Critical Terms


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