The Power of Human Imagination: New Methods in Psychotherapy

The Power of Human Imagination: New Methods in Psychotherapy


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For at least half of the twentieth century, psychology and the other mental health professions all but ignored the significant adaptive pos­ sibilities of the human gift of imagery. Our capacity seemingly to duplicate sights, sounds, and other sensory experiences through some form of central brain process continues to remain a mysterious, alma st miraculous skill. Because imagery is so much a private experience, experimental psychologists found it hard to measure and turned their attentian to observable behaviors that could easily be studied in ani­ maIs as well as in humans. Psychoanalysts and others working with the emotionally disturbed continued to take imagery informatian se­ riously in the form of dream reports, transferenee fantasies, and as indications of hallucinations or delusions. On the whole, however, they emphasized the maladaptive aspects of the phenomena, the dis­ tortions and defensiveness or the "regressive" qualities of daydreams and sequences of images. The present volume grows out of a long series of investigations by the senior author that have suggested that daydreaming and the stream of consciousness are not simply manifestations in adult life of persist­ ing phenomena of childhood. Rather, the data suggest that imagery sequences represent a major system of encoding and transforming information, a basic human capacity that is inevitably part of the brain's storage process and one that has enormous potential for adap­ tive utility. A companian volume, The Stream of Consciousness, edited by Kenneth S. Pope and Jerome L.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781461339434
Publisher: Springer US
Publication date: 11/15/2011
Series: Emotions, Personality, and Psychotherapy
Edition description: 1978
Pages: 426
Product dimensions: 5.98(w) x 9.02(h) x 0.03(d)

Table of Contents

I • Introduction and Overview.- 1 The Use of Imagery and Fantasy Techniques in Psychotherapy.- 1. Introduction.- 2. The Stunted Growth of Psychology and Psychotherapy: A Bias toward Verbal and Directed Thought.- 3. Therapy and Imagination.- 4. Dimensions of Cognition and Expression.- 5. Psychoanalysis and Related Psychodynamic Approaches.- 6. More Direct Forms of Clinical Intervention.- 7. Self-Efficacy and Imagery.- 8. Some Preventive and Constructive Uses of Our Imagery Capacities.- 8.1. Imagery and Adaptive Escapism.- 8.2. Imagery Uses for Self-Awareness.- 8.3. Imagery for Self-Regulation and Biofeedback.- 8.4. Imagery for Creativity and Aesthetic Experience.- References.- II • Psychoanalytically Oriented Uses of Imagery.- 2 Controls of Visual Imagery and Therapist Intervention.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Image Formation as a Mode of Representation.- 3. Utility of the Visual Image System.- 4. A Model of the Image System.- 5. Defenses and the Process of Working-Through.- 6. Techniques to Alter Inhibitory Operations.- 7. Facilitations and Inhibitory Failures.- 8. More Complex Defensive Operations.- 9. Summary.- References.- 3 Emergent Uncovering Psychotherapy: The Use of Imagoic and Linguistic Vehicles in Objectifying Psychodynamic Processes.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Procedures for Objectifying and Differentiating Awareness and Interpersonal Behavior.- 2.1. Self-Disclosure.- 2.2. Entrée Points: The Exploration of Self-Awareness.- 2.3. Eyes Closed Free Association.- 2.4. The Verbalization of Suppressed and Dissociated Material: A Clinical Illustration.- 2.5. Relevant Laboratory Investigations.- 3. Objectifying Repression and Repressed Drive-Related Impulses.- 4. Modes of Information Processing.- 5. Relevant Clinical Illustrations.- 6. Laboratory Investigations of Drive Intensification.- 7. A Conceptual Integration.- 7.1. Intrapsychic Drives.- 7.2. Dissociation.- 7.3. Security Operations and Defenses against Impulses.- 7.4. Endopsychic Drives.- 7.5. Free Imagery: The Mechanisms of Image Retrieval.- 7.6. Uncovering: Pathogenesis and Therapeutics.- 8. Conclusions and Wider Implications.- 8.1. Domains of Phenomena.- 8.2. Can Spontaneous Visual Imagery Be Symbolic?.- 8.3. Creativity.- 8.4. Implications for Freudian and Sullivanian Theory.- References.- 4 Clinical Use of Categories of Therapeutic Imagery.- 1. Introduction: The Function of Imagery.- 2. The Technique of Psycho-Imagination Therapy.- 3. Spontaneous Imagery.- 4. Directed Imagery.- 5. Self-Image Imagery.- 6. Dual Imagery.- 7. Body Imagery.- 8. Sexual Imagery.- 9. Predicting Imagery.- 10. Task Imagery.- 11. Cathartic Imagery.- 12. Depth Imagery.- 13. General Imagery.- 14. Detection of Resistance in Imagery Production.- 15. Group Therapy Imagery.- 16. Current Research.- References.- III • Mental Imagery Therapies.- 5 Basic Principles and Therapeutic Efficacy of Guided Affective Imagery (GAI).- 1. Introduction.- 2. Theoretical Foundations.- 3. Mobile Projection.- 3.1. Diagnostic Aspect.- 3.2. Spontaneous Projection.- 3.3. Synchronic Transformation.- 4. Bringing Core Conflicts into Focus.- 5. Standard Themes.- 5.1. Standard Motifs of GAI.- 6. Therapeutic Techniques.- 6.1. Specific Techniques and Strategies.- 7. Management Models in Symbolic Drama (Symbolic Operation).- 7.1. Two Examples.- 7.2. Theoretical Excursus.- 7.3. Elementary Level.- 7.4. Intermediate Level.- 7.5. Advanced Level.- 8. Investigative Findings.- 8.1. Literature.- 8.2. Statistical Studies.- 8.3. Case Histories.- 8.4. Didactic Possibilities.- 9. Some Theoretical Reflections on GAI.- 9.1. The General Psychodynamic Concept.- 9.2. What Is Therapeutically Effective in GAI?.- 9.3. The Nature of Transference Relationships in GAI.- 9.4. Symbolic Concepts.- 10. Indications.- 11. Summary.- References.- 6 Active Imagining.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Dream Action and Dream Meanings.- 3. Human Competence.- 4. Realism in Dreamwork.- 5. Modalities of Experience.- 6. The Structure of Healing.- 7. Archetype and Image.- 8. Images and the Structure of Thought.- 9. Structure Abstracted.- References.- 7 Eidetic Psychotherapy.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Mental Images and Their Classification.- 2.1. After-Images.- 2.2. Eidetic Images.- 2.3. Memory Images.- 2.4. Imagination Images.- 3. Ahsen’s Eidetic Image: The ISM.- 3.1. Visiosomatic Fixation and Dessociation.- 3.2. Bipolar Configurations.- 3.3. The Magical Laws of the Psyche.- 4. Eidetics and Electrically Evoked Recollections.- 5. The ISM Theory of Personality.- 6. Diagnostic and Therapeutic Procedures.- 6.1. The Age Projection Test.- 6.2. Eidetic Parents Test.- 7. A Case History.- 8. Concluding Remarks.- References.- IV • Behavior-Therapy Uses of Imagery.- 8 Covert Conditioning: A Learning-Theory Perspective on Imagery.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Covert Conditioning Assumptions and Procedures.- 2.1. A Learning-Theory Basis for Covert Conditioning.- 2.2. Covert Conditioning Procedures.- 3. Imagery Development.- 3.1. Construction of Covert Scenes.- 3.2. Development of Imagery Capacity.- 3.3. Training to Enhance Vividness and Controllability.- 3.4. Imagery Practice.- 3.5. Assessment of Imagery.- 4. Application of Covert Processes to Overall Functioning.- 4.1. Covert Processes and Maladaptive Behavior.- 4.2. Behavioral Hygiene and Therapeutic Measures.- 5. Application of Covert Processes to Specific Classes of Behavior.- 5.1. Covert Behavior and Daydreaming.- 5.2. Covert Behavior of Nocturnal Dreaming.- 5.3. The Use of Covert Conditioning in the Modification of Organic Dysfunction.- References.- 9 Covert Modeling: The Therapeutic Application of Imagined Rehearsal.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Background and Implication of Covert Modeling.- 3. Efficacy of Covert Modeling.- 4. Important Parameters of Covert Modeling.- 4.1. Model-Client Similarity.- 4.2. Model Identity.- 4.3. Multiple Models.- 4.4. Model Consequences.- 4.5. Unexplored Parameters.- 5. Assessment of Imagery and the Mechanisms of Behavior Change.- 6. Imagery-Based Techniques versus Overt Behavior Rehearsal.- 7. Conclusions and Implications.- References.- V • Broader Applications of Imagery.- 10 Imagery and the Control of Depression.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Imagery in the Treatment of Depression: A Research Strategy.- 2.1. Methodology.- 2.2. Results.- 2.3. Discussion.- 2.4. Directedness of Imagery.- 2.5. Interpersonal Significance of Imagery.- 3. Alternative Models.- 4. Patterns of Depressive Experiences.- 5. Daydreaming Patterns.- 6. Conclusions.- 7. The Nature of the Psychotherapeutic Process.- 8. Imagery, Daydreaming, and a Cognitive Theory of Self-Control.- 9. The Conscious Control of Consciousness: The Use of Imagery in Alleviating Depression.- 10. Psychotherapeutic Uses of Imagery.- 10.1. Clinical Illustrations.- 10.2. An Overview.- References.- 11 Just Imagine How I Feel: How to Improve Empathy Through Training in Imagination.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Theoretical Background: Three Levels of Empathy.- 2.1. The Behavioral Level of Empathy.- 2.2. The Subjective Level of Empathy.- 2.3. The Psychoanalytic Notion of Empathy.- 2.4. The Cognitive-Structural Level of Empathy.- 2.5. Implications for Empathy Training.- 3. Research Procedures.- 3.1. Overview of the Research Plan.- 3.2. Hypotheses.- 3.3. Empathy Training Conditions.- 3.4. Outcome Measures.- 4. Results of the Study.- 4.1. Major Findings.- 4.2. Additional Findings.- 5. Discussion.- 5.1. Review of the Findings: Some “Ifs,” “Ands,” and “Buts”.- 5.2. Further Implications for Research and Practice.- 5.3. Theoretical Implications: The Fourth Level of Empathy.- References.- 12 The Body, Expressive Movement, and Physical Contact in Psychotherapy.- 1. Introduction.- 2. The Democratization of the Relationship of the Mind and the Body.- 3. The Romantic Vision of the Body-Movement Therapies.- 4. Obstacles to the Development of Body-Awareness.- 5. Communication in Psychotherapy.- 6. Form and Content in Psychotherapy.- 7. The Role of Language in Psychoanalytic Therapy.- 8. The Search for Meaning.- 9. The Unconscious in the Body-Movement Therapies.- 10. Movements Are Expressive.- 11. Against Interpretation.- 12. Overcoming Resistances: The Reichian Influence.- 13. Styles of Exercising Authority.- 14. Changing Conceptions of Countertransference.- References.- VI • Conclusion.- 13 Why Does Using Imagery in Psychotherapy Lead to Change?.- 1. The Need for an Integrative Orientation.- 2. Imagery and the Context of Psychotherapy.- 3. Cognitive Theory of Behavior Change.- 3.1. Self-Awareness.- 3.2. Generating Adaptive New Thoughts and Responses.- 3.3. In Vivo Practice.- 4. Imagery-Based Therapies.- 5. Psychological Processes Underlying Imagery-Based Therapies.- References.- Author Index.

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