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Water Supply and Pollution Control / Edition 8

Water Supply and Pollution Control / Edition 8

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This book provides practicing engineers with water-based environment engineering from theory to practice by presenting the principles of water treatment, wastewater treatment, water reuse, water quality, and overviews of regulations regarding pollution control and drinking water quality. The Eighth Edition features new and updated coverage of GIS, climate change, alternative water supply development, hydraulics, stormwater treatment techniques, water quality regulations, filter design, and more. Recognizing that all waters are potential sources of supply, the authors present treatment processes in the context of what they can do, rather than dividing them along clean water or waste water lines. For practicing engineers who need a good reference book and for those preparing to take the examination for licensing as a professional engineer.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780132337175
Publisher: Pearson
Publication date: 06/23/2008
Series: Pearson Custom Library: Engineering Series
Edition description: New Edition
Pages: 864
Product dimensions: 6.70(w) x 9.30(h) x 1.50(d)

About the Author

Warren Viessman, Jr. is Professor Emeritus with the Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences, College of Engineering University of Florida. He served as Associate Dean for Academic Programs from 1990 to 2003, and prior to that was Chairman of the Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences. Dr. Viessman is senior author of widely used textbooks on water supply and pollution control, hydrology, and water management. He has served on numerous national, regional and state committees and commissions, and is recognized for his outstanding contributions to water resources and environmental policy making and analysis at state and national levels. His many national awards attest to his efforts in these fields. He is an Honorary Member of the American Society of Civil Engineers and a registered professional engineer.

Mark L Hammer is Professor Emeritus of civil engineering and is an author of environmental engineering publications in the United States and Saudi Arabia. During his long tenure as a professor at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Dr. Hammer also served as the Director of the Environmental Protection Agency Grant in Water Quality Control. He has taught at the King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals and King Abdul Aziz University, Saudi Arabia, where he conducted environmental engineering research in addition to his teaching responsibilities. He is a member of the American Water Works Association and the Water Environment Federation.

Table of Contents


Preface xvii

Chapter 1 Introduction

1.1 A Historical Perspective

1.2 A Current Global Issue

1.3 A Look to the Future


Chapter 2 Water Resources Planning and Management

2.1 Environmental Regulation and Protection

2.2 Security of Water Resources Systems

2.3 Watershed Management

2.4 Integrated Watershed Management

2.5 Role of Geographic Information Systems

2.6 Conclusions



Chapter 3 The Hydrologic Cycle and Natural Water Sources

3.1 The Hydrologic Cycle

The Water Budget

3.2 Mathematics of Hydrology

3.3 Water Quality

3.4 Soil Moisture


3.5 An Introduction to Groundwater Quantity and Quality

3.6 The Subsurface Distribution of Water

3.7 Aquifers

3.8 Safe Yield of an Aquifer

3.9 Groundwater Flow

3.10 Hydraulics of Wells

3.11 Boundary Effects

3.12 Regional Groundwater Systems

3.13 Salt Water Intrusion

3.14 Groundwater Recharge

3.15 Concurrent Development of Groundwater and Surface Water Sources

Surface Water

3.16 An Introduction to Surface Water Quantity and Quality

3.17 Surface Water Storage

3.18 Reservoirs

3.19 Losses from Storage

3.20 Impacts of Climate Change on Global Hydrology



Chapter 4 Alternative Sources of Water Supply

4.1 Water Conservation

4.2 Wastewater Reuse

4.3 Stormwater Reuse

4.4 Brackish and Saline Water Conversion

4.5 Interbasin Transfers

4.6 Other Relevant Technologies



Chapter 5 Water Use Trends and Forecasting

5.1 Water-Use Sectors

5.2 Factors Affecting Water Use

5.3 Water Use Trends

5.4 Population

5.5 Long-Term Water Use Forecasting



Chapter 6 Conveying and Distributing Water


6.1 Introduction to Hydraulics

6.2 Uniform Flow

6.3 Gradually Varied Flow and Surface Profiles

6.4 Velocity

Water Distribution Systems

6.5 General Design Considerations

6.6 Types of Distribution Systems

6.7 Distribution System Components

6.8 Distribution System Configutations

Hydraulic Considerations

6.8 Hydraulic Design

Pressure Considerations

6.9 General Design Sequence

6.10 Distribution Reservoirs and Service Storage


6.11 Pumping Head

6.12 Power

6.13 Cavitation

6.14 System Head

6.15 Pump Characteristics

6.16 Pump Curves



Chapter 7 Wastewater Collection and Stormwater Engineering

Design of Sanitary Sewers

7.1 House and Building Connections

7.2 Collection Systems

7.3 Intercepting Sewers

7.4 Materials

7.5 System Layout

7.6 Hydraulic Design

7.7 Protection Against Floodwaters

7.8 Wastewater Pump Stations

7.9 Inflow/Infiltration and Exfiltration

Stormwater Management

7.10 Rainfall

7.11 Runoff

7.12 Collection and Conveyance

7.13 Storm Inlets

7.14 Stable Channel Design

7.15 Best Management Practices

7.16 Detention Pond Design

7.17 Retention Pond Design

7.18 Sustainability and Low Impact Development

7.19 Hydrologic and Hydraulic Modeling



Chapter 8 Water Quality

Microbiological Quality

8.1 Waterborne Diseases

8.2 Coliform Bacteria as Indicator Organisms

8.3 Monitoring Drinking Water for Pathogens

Chemical Quality of Drinking Water

8.4 Assessment of Chemical Quality

8.5 Chemical Contaminants

Quality Criteria for Surface Waters

8.6 Water Quality Standards

8.7 Pollution Effects on Aquatic Life

8.8 Conventional Water Pollutants

8.9 Toxic Water Pollutants

Selected Pollution Parameters

8.10 Total and Suspended Solids

8.11 Biochemical and Chemical Oxygen Demands

8.12 Coliform Bacteria



Chapter 9 Systems for Treating Wastewater and Water

Wastewater Treatment Systems

9.1 Purpose of Wastewater Treatment

9.2 Selection of Treatment Processes

Water Treatment Systems

9.3 Water Sources

9.4 Selection of Water Treatment Processes

9.5 Types of Water Treatment Systems

9.6 Water-Processing Residuals

Chapter 10 Physical Treatment Processes

Flow-Measuring Devices

10.1 Measurement of Water Flow

10.2 Measurement of Wastewater Flow

Screening Devices

10.3 Water-Intake Screens

10.4 Screens in Wastewater Treatment

10.5 Shredding Devices

Mixing and Flocculation

10.6 Rapid Mixing

10.7 Flocculation


10.8 Fundamentals of Sedimentation

10.9 Types of Clarifiers

10.10 Sedimentation in Water Treatment

10.11 Sedimentation in Wastewater Treatment

10.12 Grit Chambers in Wastewater Treatment


10.13 Gravity Granular-Media Filtration

10.14 Description of a Typical Gravity Filter System

10.15 Flow Control Through Gravity Filters

10.16 Head Losses Through Filter Media

10.17 Backwashing and Media Fluidization

10.18 Pressure Filters

10.19 Membrane Filtration



Chapter 11 Chemical Treatment Processes

Chemical Considerations

11.1 Inorganic Chemicals and Compounds

11.2 Chemical Equilibria

11.3 Hydrogen Ion Concentration

11.4 Alkalinity and pH Relationships

11.5 Ways of Shifting Chemical Equilibria

11.6 Chemical Kinetics

Reactions in Continuous-Flow Systems — Real and Ideal Reactors

11.7 Mass Balance Analysis

11.8 Residence Time Distribution

11.9 Ideal Reactors

11.10 Real Reactors


11.11 Colloidal Dispersions

11.12 Natural Organic Matter

11.13 Coagulation Process

11.14 Coagulants

Water Softening

11.15 Chemistry of Lime—Soda Ash Process

11.16 Process Variations in Lime—Soda Ash Softening

11.17 Other Methods of Water Softening

Iron and Manganese Removal

11.18 Chemistry of Iron and Manganese

11.19 Preventive Treatment

11.20 Iron and Manganese Removal Processes

Disinfection and By-Product Formation

11.21 Chlorine and Chloramines

11.22 Chlorine Dioxide

11.23 Ozone

11.24 Ultraviolet Radiation

11.25 Disinfection By-Products

11.26 Control of Disinfection By-Products

11.27 Disinfection/Disinfection By-Products Rule

Disinfection of Potable Water

11.28 Concept of the Product

11.29 Surface Water Disinfection

11.30 Groundwater Disinfection

Disinfection of Wastewater

11.31 Conventional Effluent Disinfection

11.32 Tertiary Effluent Disinfection

Taste and Odor

11.33 Control of Taste and Odor


11.34 Fluoridation

Corrosion and Corrosion Control

11.35 Electrochemical Mechanism of Iron Corrosion

11.36 Corrosion of Lead Pipe and Solder

11.37 Corrosion of Sewer Pipes

Membrane Processes

11.38 Membrane Filtration

11.39 Reverse Osmosis and Nanofiltration

Volatile Organic Chemical Removal

11.40 Design of Air-Stripping Towers

Synthetic Organic Chemical Removal

11.41 Activated Carbon Adsorption

11.42 Granular Activated Carbon Systems

Reduction of Dissolved Salts

11.43 Distillation of Seawater

11.44 Ion Exchange



Chapter 12 Biological Treatment Processes

Biological Considerations

12.1 Bacteria and Fungi

12.2 Algae

12.3 Protozoa and Higher Animals

12.4 Metabolism, Energy, and Synthesis

12.5 Enzyme Kinetics

12.6 Growth Kinetics of Pure Bacterial Cultures

12.7 Biological Growth in Wastewater Treatment

12.8 Factors Affecting Growth

12.9 Population Dynamics

Characteristics of Wastewater

12.10 Flow and Strength Variations

12.11 Composition of Wastewater

Trickling (Biological) Filters

12.12 Biological Process in Trickling Filtration

12.13 Trickling-Filter Operation and Filter Media Requirements

12.14 Trickling-Filter Secondary Systems

12.15 Efficiency Equations for Stone-Media Trickling Filters

12.16 Efficiency Equations for Plastic-Media Trickling Filters

12.17 Combined Trickling-Filter and Activated-Sludge Processes

12.18 Description of Rotating Biological Contactor Media and Process

Activated Sludge

12.19 BOD Loadings and Aeration Periods

12.20 Operation of Activated-Sludge Processes

12.21 Activated-Sludge Treatment Systems

12.22 Kinetics Model of the Activated-Sludge Process

12.23 Laboratory Determination of Kinetic Constants

12.24 Application of the Kinetics Model in Process Design

12.25 Oxygen Transfer and Oxygenation Requirements

12.26 Determination of Oxygen Transfer Coefficients

Stabilization Ponds

12.27 Description of a Facultative Pond

12.28 BOD Loadings of Facultative Ponds

12.29 Advantages and Disadvantages of Stabilization Ponds

12.30 Completely Mixed Aerated Lagoons

Odor Control

12.31 Sources of Odors in Wastewater Treatment

12.32 Methods of Odor Control

Individual On-Site Wastewater Disposal

12.33 Septic Tank-Absorption Field System

Marine Wastewater Disposal

12.34 Ocean Outfalls



Chapter 13 Processing of Sludges

Sources, Characteristics, and Quantities of Waste Sludges

13.1 Weight and Volume Relationships

13.2 Characteristics and Quantities of Wastewater Sludges

13.3 Characteristics and Quantities of Water-Processing Sludges

Arrangement of Unit Processes in Sludge Disposal

13.4 Selection of Processes for Wastewater Sludges

13.5 Selection of Processes for Water Treatment Sludges

Gravity Thickening

13.6 Gravity Sludge Thickeners in Wastewater Treatment

13.7 Gravity Sludge Thickeners in Water Treatment

Gravity Belt Thickening

13.8 Description of a Gravity Belt Thickener

13.9 Layout of a Gravity Belt Thickener System

13.10 Sizing of Gravity Belt Thickeners

Flotation Thickening

13.11 Description of Dissolved-Air Flotation

13.12 Design of Dissolved-Air Flotation Units

Biological Sludge Digestion

13.13 Anaerobic Sludge Digestion

13.14 Single-Stage Floating-Cover Digesters

13.15 High-Rate (Completely Mixed) Digesters

13.16 Volatile Solids Loadings and Digester Capacity

13.17 Aerobic Sludge Digestion

13.18 Open-Air Drying Beds

13.19 Composting

Pressure Filtration

13.20 Description of Belt Filter Press Dewatering

13.21 Application of Belt Filter Dewatering

13.22 Sizing of Belt Filter Presses

13.23 Description of Filter Press Dewatering

13.24 Application of Pressure Filtration


13.25 Description of Centrifugation

13.26 Applications of Centrifugation

Cycling of Waste Solids in Treatment Plants

13.27 Suspended-Solids Removal Efficiency

Final Disposal or Use

13.28 Land Application

13.29 Codisposal in a Municipal Solid-Waste Landfill

13.30 Surface Land Disposal



Chapter 14 Advanced Wastewater Treatment Processes and Water Reuse

Limitations of Secondary Treatment

14.1 Effluent Standards

14.2 Flow Equalization

Selection of Advanced Wastewater Treatment Processes

14.3 Selecting and Combining Unit Processes

Suspended-Solids Removal

14.4 Granular-Media Filtration

14.5 Direct Filtration with Chemical Coagulation

Carbon Adsorption

14.6 Granular-Carbon Columns

14.7 Activated-Sludge Treatment with Powdered Activated Carbon

Phosphorus Removal

14.8 Biological Phosphorus Removal

14.9 Biological—Chemical Phosphorus Removal

14.10 Tracing Phosphorus Through Treatment Processes

Nitrogen Removal

14.11 Tracing Nitrogen Through Treatment Processes

14.12 Biological Nitrification

14.13 Biological Denitrification

14.14 Single-Sludge Biological Nitrification-Denitrification

Water Reuse

14.15 Water Quality and Reuse Applications

14.16 Agricultural Irrigation

14.17 Agricultural Irrigation Reuse, Tallahassee, Florida

14.18 Citrus Irrigation and Groundwater Recharge, Orange County and City of Orlando, Florida

14.19 Urban Reuse

14.20 Urban Reuse, St. Petersburg, Florida

14.21 Indirect Reuse to Augment Drinking Water Supply

14.22 Fred Hervey Water Reclamation Plant, El Paso, Texas

14.23 Direct Injection for Potable Supply, El Paso, Texas

14.24 Water Factory 21 and Groundwater Replenishment System, Orange County, California






This seventh edition of Water Supply and Pollution Control has been updated and its coverage of topics expanded to meet the contemporary needs of civil and environmental engineering students. As we embark upon the twenty-first century, engineers responsible for providing safe water supplies to the inhabitants of this planet, and for treating wastes to render them reusable, will face many challenges. These include providing needed quantities of good-quality water for drinking and other household purposes, especially in water-short areas, and dealing with wastes that sometimes contain staggering levels of harmful substances. The engineers of tomorrow must be equipped to deal with a diversity of issues, such as forecasting future levels of population; estimating the potential for technological developments to reduce water requirements; recognizing that allocating water to meet human and other traditional water needs must also compete with water requirements for sustaining natural systems; exploring the impacts of climate change on local to global water supplies; and designing water supply and wastewater management systems to take into account technical, economic, environmental, social, legal, and political elements. The notion of continually striving to provide more water is giving way to one of husbanding this precious natural resource.

Water Supply and Pollution Control has been revised to include new material on standards, water and wastewater treatment processes, water distribution system analysis and design, water quality, advanced wastewater treatment for recycling, storm water management, and urban hydrology. In particular, there are major revisions ofthe chapters, or sections, on water supply and use (Chapters 3 and 4), water distribution (Chapter 6), hydraulics and hydrology of sewer and storm drainage systems (Chapter 7), monitoring of drinking water for pathogens (Chapter 8), membrane filtration (Chapter 10), disinfection/disinfection by-products rule (Chapter 11), biological treatment processes (Chapter 12), and indirect reuse to augment drinking water supply (Chapter 14). New topics, such as security of potable water supplies, the use of membranes in water treatment, and the application of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) to water supply and wastewater management problems, have been introduced. There are more practical examples, and many new problems have been added. Consistent with the original intent of the book, the emphasis is on the application of scientific methods to problems associated with the development, movement, and treatment of water and wastewater. The book's tradition of presenting treatment processes in the context of what they can do, rather than in the context of water or wastewater treatment, is becoming more and more appropriate as we move toward the concept of total water management, recognizing that all waters are potential sources of supply. Water reuse is increasingly becoming an important national consideration. On the water supply side, more attention is paid to the sharing of water with natural systems and the impacts that this has on the quantities of water available for traditional water-using sectors, including public water supply. Many solved examples and homework problems serve to amplify the concepts presented in the text, and appropriate Web addresses have been provided where applicable.

Numerous sources have been drawn upon to provide subject matter for the book, and the authors have endeavored to provide suitable acknowledgment for them. The authors also wish to acknowledge the advice and assistance of students, professors, and practicing engineers who have reviewed and commented on previous editions. Particular recognition is given to those who helped prepare the manuscript for the seventh edition, namely, Audrey Hammer and Bette Viessman. We are indebted to them for their perseverance and understanding and for the excellent quality of their work.


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