What A Waste: Global Snapshot to 2050

What A Waste: Global Snapshot to 2050

by The World Bank (Editor)


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By 2050, the world is expected to generate 3.76 billion tonnes of waste annually, increasing drastically from today's 2.10 billion tonnes. What a Waste presents national and urban waste management data from around the world and highlights the need for urgent action. The publication provides a snapshot on how waste generation and management varies across income levels and regions, and shares good practices globally. Solid waste management is one of the most important urban services, yet it is complex and expensive, accounting for approximately 20% of municipal budgets in low-income countries and 10% of municipal budgets in high-income countries. Costly and complex waste operations must compete for funding with other priorities such as clean water and other utilities, education, and healthcare. Waste management is often managed by local authorities with limited resources and limited capacities in planning, contract management and operational monitoring. These factors make sustainable waste management a complicated proposition on the path of economic development and most low and middle-income countries and their cities are struggling to address the challenges. Waste management data is critical to creating policy and planning for the local context. Understanding how much waste is generated--especially with rapid urbanization and population growth--as well as the types of waste being generated allows for local governments to select appropriate management methods and plan for future demand. It allows governments to design a system with a suitable number of vehicles, establish efficient routes, set targets for diversion of waste, track progress, and adapt as consumption patterns change. With accurate data, governments can realistically allocate budget and land, assess relevant technologies, and consider strategic partners for service provision such as the private sector or non-governmental organizations. The publication strives to provide the latest and most realistic information available to empower citizens and governments around the world to take action and address the pressing global crisis of waste.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781464813290
Publisher: World Bank Publications
Publication date: 10/31/2018
Series: Urban Development
Pages: 100
Sales rank: 779,244
Product dimensions: 6.90(w) x 9.90(h) x 0.70(d)

About the Author

The World Bank came into formal existence in 1945 following the international ratification of the Bretton Woods agreements. It is a vital source of financial and technical assistance to developing countries around the world. The organization's activities are focused on education, health, agriculture and rural development, environmental protection, establishing and enforcing regulations, infrastructure development, governance and legal institutions development. The World Bank is made up of two unique development institutions owned by its 185 Member Countries. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) focuses on middle income and creditworthy poor countries and the International Development Association (IDA), which focuses on the poorest countries in the world.

Table of Contents

Forword ix

Acknowledgement xiii

Abbreviations xvii

1 Introduction 1

A Note on Data 9

Notes 13

References 13

2 At a Glance: A Global Picture of Solid Waste Management 17

Key Insights 17

Waste Generation 18

Projected Waste Generation 24

Waste Composition 29

Waste Collection 32

Waste Disposal 34

Special Wastes 36

Notes 37

References 37

3 Regional Snapshots 39

East Asia and Pacific 39

Europe and Central Asia 46

Latin America and the Caribbean 53

Middle East and North Africa 59

North America 66

South Asia 69

Sub-Saharan Africa 76

References 83

Additional Resources 84

4 Waste Administration and Operations 87

Key Insights 87

Solid Waste Regulations 89

Solid Waste Planning 91

Institutions and Coordination 93

Waste Management Operations 94

References 99

5 Financing and Cost Recovery for Waste Management Systems 101

Key Insights 101

Waste Management Budgets 102

Waste Management Costs 103

Waste Management Financing 105

References 112

6 Waste and Society 115

Key Insights 115

Environment and Climate Change 116

Technology Trends 121

Citizen Engagement 126

Social Impacts of Waste Management and the Informal Sector 129

Notes 133

References 133

Additional Resources 139

7 Case Studies 141

1 A Path to Zero Waste in San Francisco, United States 141

2 Achieving Financial Sustainability in Argentina and Colombia 143

3 Automated Waste Collection in Israel 147

4 Cooperation between National and Local Governments for Municipal Waste Management in Japan 148

5 Central Reforms to Stabilize the Waste Sector and Engage the Private Sector in Senegal 151

6 Decentralized Organic Waste Management by Households in Burkina Faso 152

7 Eco-Left A Successful Plastic Recycling System in Tunisia 153

8 Extended Producer Responsibility Schemes in Europe 155

9 Financially Resilient Deposit Refund System: The Case of the Bottle Recycling Program in Palau 158

10 Improving Waste Collection by Partnering with the Informal Sector in Pune, India 161

11 Improving Waste Management through Citizen Communication in Toronto, Canada 163

12 Managing Disaster Waste 165

13 Minimizing Food Loss and Waste in Mexico 167

14 Sustainable Source Separation in Panaji, India 170

15 Musical Garbage Trucks in Taiwan, China 173

16 The Global Tragedy of Marine Litter 174

17 Using Information Management to Reduce Waste in Korea 176

Notes 177

References 177

Additional Resources 180

Appendix A Waste Generation (tonnes per year) and Projections by Country or Economy 185

Appendix B Waste Treatment and Disposal by Country or Economy 231


1.1 Data for the Sub-Saharan Africa Region 10

2.1 Waste Generation Projection Methodology 25

2.2 Global Food Loss and Waste 30

3.1 Morocco: Investing in Environmental Sustainability Pays Off 60

3.2 Swachh Bharat Mission (Clean India Mission) 75

5.1 Results-Based Financing in Waste Management 110

5.2 Carbon Finance 111

6.1 Plastic Waste Management 117

6.2 Examples of Information That Can Be Aggregated Using a Waste Management Data System 122

6.3 I Got Garbage 124

6.4 Mr. Trash Wheel 127

6.5 Waste Picker Cooperative Model: Recuperar 130

6.6 Formalization of Waste Pickers in Brazil 131

6.7 Challenges for Waste Pickers 131

6.8 Socially Responsible Plastics Recycling in Mexico 132


2.1 Waste Generation by Region 19

2.2 Waste Generation by Income Level 21

2.3 Waste Generation and Gross Domestic Product 22

2.4 Waste Generation and Urbanization Rate 23

2.5 Projected Global Waste Generation 25

B2.1.1 Waste Generation; Actual and Model Prediction 26

2.6 Projected Waste Generation by Income Group 27

2.7 Projected Waste Generation by Region 28

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