Women Education, Health and Mobility Status

Women Education, Health and Mobility Status

by Suchitra S. Kumar


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The investment in human capital has been emphasized by economists from Adam Smith to Amartya Sen. It is now agreed that improvements in the education, nutrition, and health of a population significantly and positively influence economic growth. In India, in terms of education and health needs of the family, the position and status of women in society can be viewed by the voices they have in decision-making. Unfortunately, India's women fare poorly on this score, especially in rural areas. Women receive little educational and health care services in comparison to men. The institution of patriarchy explains the intra-household altruistic relationships that create an ideology of under-investment in girls. In addition, even if education is imparted, it is often of an inferior quality. This book provides an in-depth account and analysis of the status of women in Indian society, particularly in terms of education, health, and labor mobility.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9788177083842
Publisher: New Century Publications
Publication date: 08/30/2014
Pages: 192
Product dimensions: 5.70(w) x 8.70(h) x 0.80(d)

Table of Contents

About the Book vii

Author's Profile viii

Preface xiii-xvi

1 Introduction to Gender Issues 1-9

1.1 Investment in Human Capital

1.2 Traditional Approach to Gender Issues

1.3 Economic Approaches to Gender Issues

1.4 The Bargaining Model

2 Patriarchal Approach to Women's Education 10-18

2.1 Gender Inequalities

2.2 Gender Socialization

2.3 Violence against Women

2.4 Patriarchal System and Allocation of Resources

2.5 A Critique of Patriarchy

3 Economic Approaches to Women's Education 19-39

3.1 Human Capital

3.2 Significance of Human Capital

3.3 Investment in Women's Education

3.4 Economic Models of the Household

3.5 Unitary Model

3.6 Alternative Economic Models of the Household

3.7 Bargaining Models

3.8 Nash Bargaining Model of Family: Empirical Evidence

3.9 Limitations and Alternatives to Nash Bargaining Model

4 Externalities from Investment in Women's Education 40-4

4.1 Incompatibility between Fertility and Market Activity

4.2 Cost of Children

4.3 Time Cost of Child Rearing

4.4 Health Advantages

4.5 Higher Standard of Living

4.6 Spacing of Children

4.7 Control over Resources

4.8 Commitment to Work

4.9 Conclusion

5 Patriarchal System and Women's Health, Education and Work Participation 50-77

5.1 Women's Health

5.2 Women's Education

5.3 Work Participation by Women

5.4 Socio-Cultural Impact

5.5 Difficulties in Analyzing Gender-bias in Nutrition

5.6 Body Mass Index as Indicator of Women's Health

5.7 Weight-for-height Index

6 Human Capital Approach to Women's Health and Nutrition 78-86

6.1 Significance and Implications

6.2 Externalities from Investment in Women's Health

6.3 Conclusion

7 Approaches to Women's Mobility 87-105

7.1 Notion of Mobility

7.2 Patriarchal System and Women's Mobility

7.3 Human Capital Approach and Migration

7.4 Rationale for Women's Mobility

7.4.1 Marriage

7.4.2 Employment

7.4.3 Job Improvement

7.4.4 Occupational Mobility and Family Migration

7.4.5 Factors Affecting Mobility in Formal and Informal Sectors

7.4.6 Education and Urban Background

7.5 Reasons for Low Mobility among Women

7.5.1 No Voice in Decision-making

7.5.2 Migration along with Spouse

7.5.3 Absence of Networking for International Mobility

7.5.4 Existence of Young Children within the Family

7.6 Impact of Migration on Women

7.6.1 Interdependence between Health and Migration

7.6.2 Effect of Family Ties

7.6.3 Remittances

7.6.4 Less Domestic Chores

7.6.5 Negative Impact on Fertility

7.7 Women's Migration in India

7.8 Conclusion

8 Discrimination against Women in the Labour Market 106-121

8.1 I Do Women Systematically Earn Less?

8.2 Role of Education

8.3 Data and Method of the Analysis

9 Access to Resources by Men and Women 122-135

9.1 Deprivation of Basic Amenities

9.2 Test Procedure

9.3 Data and Method of the Analysis

9.4 Observations

9.5 Spearman's Rank Correlation

10 Is Girl Child an Inferior Good? 136-147

10.1 Data and Method of the Analysis

10.2 Relationship between Per Capita Income and Sex Ratio

10.3 Results of Other Studies

10.4 Conclusion

11 Conclusions and Policy Prescriptions 148-152

11.1 Conclusions

11.2 Policy Prescriptions

Bibliography 153-168

Index 169-174

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